Altered reward-related effective connectivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: an fMRI study

Conclusion: This disrupted connectivity in parts of the default mode network and the frontostriatal network may indicate increased rumination and self-related processing impairing the responsiveness toward external rewards. This, in turn, may underlie the general urge for reinforcement accompanying compulsive behaviours. PMID: 30964615 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Psychiatry Neurosci Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: The Lancet PsychiatryAuthor(s): Meng-Chuan Lai, Caroline Kassee, Richard Besney, Sarah Bonato, Laura Hull, William Mandy, Peter Szatmari, Stephanie H AmeisSummaryBackgroundCo-occurring mental health or psychiatric conditions are common in autism, impairing quality of life. Reported prevalences of co-occurring mental health or psychiatric conditions in people with autism range widely. Improved prevalence estimates and identification of moderators are needed to enhance recognition and care, and to guide future research.MethodsIn this systematic review and meta-analysis...
Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
This study investigated the prevalence of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) symptoms and their relationship with pregnancy- related anxiety, perinatal depression and clinical anger among pregnant black African women in South Africa. The sample consisted of 206 women attending their antenatal check-ups at the Mankweng, Nobody, and Rethabile Clinics, and the Mankweng hospital in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. Quantitative data was collected from a convenience sample, within a cross-sectional survey design. First, the prevalence of OCD among the women was established. Then Pearson's correlation analysis was used ...
Source: African Journal of Reproductive Health - Category: African Health Tags: Afr J Reprod Health Source Type: research
Conclusions/importance: Alexithymia worked through negative mood and alcohol craving leading to increased alcohol dependence severity, indicating that craving had an indirect effect on the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol dependence severity. Targeting alcohol craving and negative mood for alcohol-dependent patients with alexithymia seems warranted. PMID: 31429362 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Substance Use and Misuse - Category: Addiction Tags: Subst Use Misuse Source Type: research
Authors: Zhang RT, Zhou HY, Wang YM, Yang ZY, Wang Y, So SH, Chiu CD, Leung PWL, Cheung EFC, Chan RCK Abstract Schizotypal personality (SP) traits have been found to be correlated with autistic traits, obsessive-compulsive traits, depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms. However, the overall pattern of the relationship remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the network structure between SP traits and other subclinical features (symptoms or traits) and test the replicability of these relationships. A total of 2204 college students completed measurements for SP traits, autistic traits, obsessi...
Source: Asian Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Asian J Psychiatr Source Type: research
__________ Psychiatric diagnosis ‘scientifically meaningless’ (Science Daily): “A new study, published in Psychiatry Research, has concluded that psychiatric diagnoses are scientifically worthless as tools to identify discrete mental health disorders. The study, led by researchers from the University of Liverpool, involved a detailed analysis of five key chapters of the latest edition of the widely used Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), on ‘schizophrenia’, ‘bipolar disorder’, ‘depressive disorders’, ‘anxiety disorders’ and ‘trauma-related disord...
Source: SharpBrains - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cognitive Neuroscience Health & Wellness anxiety-disorders bipolar-disorder depressive disorders diagnostic labelling digital biomarkers DSM DSM-5 mental health mental health disorders psychiatric diagnosis psychiatry research sc Source Type: blogs
Conclusions: This study supports the idea that OCD is related to deficits in theory of mind and emotion regulation skills. Thus, further studies are required to confirm the findings of this study. PMID: 31403840 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Nord J Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2019Source: Journal of Psychiatric ResearchAuthor(s): Jasmine Turna, Keren Grosman Kaplan, Beth Patterson, Premysl Bercik, Rebecca Anglin, Noam Soreni, Michael Van AmeringenAbstractBackgroundAnxiety and mood symptoms often co-occur with gastrointestinal problems, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The extent to which these relate to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is unclear, despite anxiety being a prominent symptom of this disorder. The purpose of this analysis was to examine gastrointestinal symptoms in unmedicated, non-depressed adult OCD patients compared to age- a...
Source: Journal of Psychiatric Research - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Abstract Cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are the most represented phytocannabinoids in Cannabis sativa plants. However, CBD may present with a different activity compared with the psychotomimetic THC. Most typically, CBD is reported to be used in some medical conditions, including chronic pain. Conversely, the main aim of this systematic review is to assess and summarise the available body of evidence relating to both efficacy and safety of CBD as a treatment for psychiatric disorders, alone and/or in combination with other treatments. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trial...
Source: Neurotoxicology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research
This study suggests that there is no difference in aggressive behavior between children with tics without comorbidities and healthy children. It is possible that aggressive behavior in children with tic disorders is predominantly associated with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The purpose of this article is to present current information on the phenomenology, epidemiology, comorbidities, and pathophysiology of tic disorders and discuss therapy options. It is hoped that a greater understanding of each of these components will provide clinicians with the necessary information to deliver thoughtful and optimal care to affected individuals. RECENT FINDINGS Recent advances include the finding that Tourette syndrome is likely due to a combination of several different genes, both low-effect and larger-effect variants, plus environmental factors. Pathophysiologically, increasing e...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research
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