Plant nitrilase: a new job for an old enzyme

Nitrilases are versatile enzymes that hydrolyze nitriles to carboxylic acids and ammonia, but many members of this family lack defined biological functions. In plants, nitrilases have been associated with detoxification of cyanide-containing compounds and auxin biosynthesis; however, recent work suggests that the chemical versatility of these proteins contributes to metabolite repair. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Niehaus et al. demonstrate that the Nit1 nitrilase from Arabidopsis thaliana functions as a metabolite repair enzyme that removes deaminated glutathione from the cytoplasm and plastids.
Source: Biochemical Journal - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Commentaries Source Type: research

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Skin and intestinal epithelial barriers play a pivotal role in protecting underlying tissues from harsh external environments. The protective role of these epithelia is, in part, dependent on a remarkable capacity to restore barrier function and tissue homeostasis after injury. In response to damage, epithelial wounds repair by a series of events that integrate epithelial responses with those of resident and infiltrating immune cells including neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Compromise of this complex interplay predisposes to development of chronic nonhealing wounds, contributing to morbidity and mortality of many d...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Immune cells are pivotal in the reaction to injury, whereupon, under ideal conditions, repair and resolution phases restore homeostasis following initial acute inflammation. Immune cell activation and reprogramming require transcriptional changes that can only be initiated if epigenetic alterations occur. Recently, accelerated deciphering of epigenetic mechanisms has extended knowledge of epigenetic regulation, including long-distance chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, and involvement of small and long noncoding RNAs. Epigenetic changes have been linked to aspects of immune cell...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
In this paper, the first author ’s name was incorrectly tagged.
Source: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
We present a case of a patient with lateral knee pain and subjective instability sensation after a low-energy trauma secondary to a lateral meniscus tear, with absence of the PCL on MRI examination and thickened meniscofemoral ligaments, with anterior and superior insertion at the femur, in the footprint of PCL. The patient had a menisci repair, without PCL reconstruction. At the 6-month follow-up, the patient did not report any instability symptoms during his daily work and sports activities. There are therapeutic implications in distinguishing a chronic PCL tear from an aplasia, so it is important to detect some signs in...
Source: Skeletal Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
AbstractDuring meiosis, DNA double-strand breaks are initiated by the topoisomerase-like enzyme SPO11 and are repaired by inter-sister chromatid and inter-homologue DNA repair pathways. Genome-wide maps of initiating DNA double-strand breaks and inter-homologue repair events are now available for a number of mammalian, fungal and plant species. In mammals, PRDM9 specifies the location of meiotic recombination initiation via recognition of specific DNA sequence motifs by its C2H2 zinc finger array. In fungi and plants, meiotic recombination appears to be initiated less discriminately in accessible chromatin, including at ge...
Source: Chromosoma - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
This study designed a novel microcurrent dressing (MCD) and evaluated its potential effects on wound healing in a rat skin defect model.MethodsFirst, wireless ES was integrated into a medical cotton cushion to fabricate the MCD, and its electrical property was examined by using a universal power meter. Then, animal experiments were conducted to evaluate the MCD ’s effect. Forty-five rats were randomized into control (Con) group, Vaseline gauze (VG) group and MCD group. A full-thickness round skin incision 1.5 cm in diameter was made on the back of each animal. Apart from routine disinfection, the Con rats were...
Source: Military Medical Research - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the operative mortality rate and outcomes of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) between young and geriatric people in a single center. Methods: Eighty-five patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms who underwent EVAR between January 2012 and September 2016 were included. Outcomes were compared between two groups: the young (aged
Source: Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Discussions about your goals can also act as a starting point for you and your spouse to work from. It can break down the monumental task of repairing your marriage into bite-size pieces. Or it can give you the information needed to decide to part ways. 4. Both of You Need to Be Willing to Change. Both partners in an unhappy marriage need to be willing to say, “Yes, you can save an unhappy marriage.” You both need to want to do the hard work necessary to repair the relationship. And make no mistake — it can be emotional, hard work. After all, it feels vulnerable to own up to your own faults and insecuriti...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Marriage and Divorce Publishers Relationships YourTango Source Type: blogs
Condition:   Meningomyelocele Intervention:   Procedure: Fetal surgery for MMC repair Sponsors:   University Children's Hospital, Zurich;   University of Zurich;   Psychiatric University Hospital, Zurich Recruiting
Source: - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs) are the most common form of visceral artery aneurysm. Indications for treatment of asymptomatic SAAs usually include diameter>20  mm or rapid enlargement. SAA treatment has evolved from open surgical repair, with or without splenectomy, to endovascular management. Endovascular management, including SAA embolization and SAA exclusion, has thus gained widespread acceptance, essentially because of its high technical success rat es along with its significant improvements in morbidity and mortality compared with open surgical repair.
Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Vascular images Source Type: research
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