Contribution of Non-immune Cells to Activation and Modulation of the Intestinal Inflammation

Conclusions As the intestinal mucosa surface constitutes the major surface of the body which is in direct contact with the outer environment, intestinal immune homeostasis must be accurately regulated. The interplay between commensal microbiota, intestinal stromal cells, and the mucosal immune system components should guarantee the intestinal homeostasis to avoid a sustained inflammation that could induce tissue damage. However, several factors can lead to inflammation through homeostasis breakdown. Figure 1 summarizes the main points that have been reviewed here. We have described what it is known so far about the role of epithelial cells and intestinal fibroblasts in the induction and modulation of mucosal inflammation in IBD. In this chronic inflammatory disorders the intestinal barrier permeability is compromised and the selective passage of luminal antigens into the lamina propria is altered, triggering cell activation, and inflammation. A plethora of evidences demonstrate the impact of dietary and environmental factors on the gut microbioma and on the modulation of the intestinal immunity. Notwithstanding the efforts made to find alternatives to conventional anti-inflammatory treatments (steroids, antibiotics, immunosuppressive drugs and biologics) by modulation of non-immune cells response, no current evidences arise that support the replacement of conventional therapies. Regarding probiotics, for instance, it has recently been demonstrated that the use of probiotics ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Authors: Pennisi PA, Fernández MC, Martin A Abstract Pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PCCs/PGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors, developed from chromaffin cells derived from the neural crest. From a genetic point of view PCCs/PGLs are divided as sporadic cases, and inherited cases as part of hereditary (familial) syndromes. While the majority is benign, up to 26% of PCCs/PGLs will undergo malignant transformation. Validated prognostic pathological parameters for malignant PCCs/PGLs are still lacking. Signaling that follows the interactions between IGFs and their receptor/s in tumor cells received extensive ...
Source: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Pediatr Endocrinol Rev Source Type: research
Authors: Silva MAFS, Dechichi P, Limirio PHJO Abstract Childhood obesity is a considerable worldwide health problem and a major risk factor for several chronic diseases. Fat rich diets result in altered serum levels of lipids, cytokines and hormonal factors, which influence skeletal acquisition and promote microstructural and mechanical behavior changes in bone, especially to bone quality and quantity. However, the possible longterm implications of high-fat diets in childhood are controversial. Despite not fully understood, multiple signaling pathways which support bone tissue homeostasis are altered under hyperlip...
Source: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Pediatr Endocrinol Rev Source Type: research
Authors: Scheffer-Rath ME, Boot AM Abstract Vitamin D is important for skeletal growth, bone mineralization and dental health. Vitamin D deficiency is reported in many countries, may have several causes and can cause rickets in children. A guideline with recommendations of vitamin D supplementation to prevent nutritional rickets was published recently. The vitamin D receptor is present in many cells of the body including cells of the immune system. Many studies have been published on associations between vitamin D deficiency and extra skeletal effects, mainly without proof of causality in intervention studies. This...
Source: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Pediatr Endocrinol Rev Source Type: research
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Source: Current Therapeutic Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Personal Views & Reflections Source Type: research
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Source: Clinical Oral Investigations - Category: Dentistry Source Type: research
Authors: Plunk EC, Richards SM Abstract The epigenome of an individual can be altered by endogenous hormones, environment, age, diet, and exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and the effects of these modifications can be seen across generations. Epigenetic modifications to the genome can alter the phenotype of the individual without altering the DNA sequence itself. Epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, histone modification, and aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression; they begin during germ cell development and embryogenesis and continue until death. Hormone modulation occurs during the agei...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research
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Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research
Authors: Vibhatavata P, Pisarnturakit P, Boonsripitayanon M, Pithuksurachai P, Plengvidhya N, Sirinvaravong S Abstract Postoperative hypoparathyroidism is a common complication of total or completion thyroidectomy. The association between preoperative vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and the development of more severe postoperative hypocalcemia is still unclear. Objectives. To evaluate the effect of preoperative VDD on severity of hypocalcemia in patients with hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy. Methods. Patients who developed acute hypoparathyroidism after total or completion thyroidectomy, defined as postoperat...
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research
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Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research
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