Contribution of Non-immune Cells to Activation and Modulation of the Intestinal Inflammation

Conclusions As the intestinal mucosa surface constitutes the major surface of the body which is in direct contact with the outer environment, intestinal immune homeostasis must be accurately regulated. The interplay between commensal microbiota, intestinal stromal cells, and the mucosal immune system components should guarantee the intestinal homeostasis to avoid a sustained inflammation that could induce tissue damage. However, several factors can lead to inflammation through homeostasis breakdown. Figure 1 summarizes the main points that have been reviewed here. We have described what it is known so far about the role of epithelial cells and intestinal fibroblasts in the induction and modulation of mucosal inflammation in IBD. In this chronic inflammatory disorders the intestinal barrier permeability is compromised and the selective passage of luminal antigens into the lamina propria is altered, triggering cell activation, and inflammation. A plethora of evidences demonstrate the impact of dietary and environmental factors on the gut microbioma and on the modulation of the intestinal immunity. Notwithstanding the efforts made to find alternatives to conventional anti-inflammatory treatments (steroids, antibiotics, immunosuppressive drugs and biologics) by modulation of non-immune cells response, no current evidences arise that support the replacement of conventional therapies. Regarding probiotics, for instance, it has recently been demonstrated that the use of probiotics ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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