Chronic HIV-1 Infection Alters the Cellular Distribution of Fc γRIIIa and the Functional Consequence of the FcγRIIIa-F158V Variant

In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that in the presence of an HIV-1 infection, the cellular distribution of FcγRIIIa is altered and that the functional consequence of FcγRIIIa variant is affected. Importantly, it underscores the need to characterize FcγR expression, cellular distribution and functional consequences of FcγR genetic variants within a specific environment or disease state. Introduction Receptors for the Fc domain of immunoglobulin G (IgG), so called Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), link the specificity of IgG with potent effector functions of the innate immune system. FcγRs comprise a family of activating (FcγRI, FcγRIIa, and FcγRIIIa) and inhibiting (FcγRIIb) receptors that are differentially expressed on innate immune cells such as natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and granulocytes (1–3). During an infection, these receptors play an important role in activating IgG-induced protective inflammatory processes and regulating immune responses (4–7). Increasing evidence support an important role for FcγR-mediated effector functions, in particular antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), in HIV-1-specific immunity (6, 8). In adults, ADCC has been associated with a reduced risk of HIV-1 acquisition in the RV144 vaccine trial, whereas in infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers, passively acquired ADCC activity associated with reduced mortality (...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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DiscussionIntestinal TB most commonly affected region is the ileocaecal, accounts for 64% of the incidence of gastrointestinal TB. The main reasons for the predilection of ileocaecal region are due to relatively longer faecal static, the abundant of lymphoid tissue, a neutral pH environment and absorptive transport mechanisms that allow swallowed mycobacterium to be absorbed. Intestinal TB may pose similar symptoms as those found in pulmonary TB, yet patients most commonly presenting with abdominal pain. Bacteriological signs and histopathological findings are gold standard for ITB diagnosis. Therapy for ITB includes pharm...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Huda Badri, Jaclyn A. SmithAbstractCough is mediated by vagal afferent fibres innervating the larynx and proximal airways. Pre-clinical studies suggest that vagal C fibres produce Substance P, one of the tachykinin family of neuropeptides, which has been shown to enhance cough via the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and studies in animal models have also shown that NK-1 antagonists are effective at blocking induced cough. In the past, tachykinin receptor antagonists have yielded disappointing results in treating asthma...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Robert Loughnan, Diego L. Lorca-Puls, Andrea Gajardo-Vidal, Valeria Espejo-Videla, Céline R. Gillebert, Dante Mantini, Cathy J. Price, Thomas M.H. HopeAbstractAround a third of stroke survivors suffer from acquired language disorders (aphasia), but current medicine cannot predict whether or when they might recover. Prognostic research in this area increasingly draws on datasets associating structural brain imaging data with outcome scores for ever-larger samples of stroke patients. The aim is to learn brain-behavior trends from ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Objectives The goals of this study were to compare the efficacy of the new manganese-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent Mn-PyC3A to the commercial gadolinium-based agents Gd-DOTA and to Gd-EOB-DTPA to detect tumors in murine models of breast cancer and metastatic liver disease, respectively, and to quantify the fractional excretion and elimination of Mn-PyC3A in rats. Methods T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI with 0.1 mmol/kg Mn-PyC3A was compared with 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DOTA in a breast cancer mouse model (n = 8) and to 0.025 mmol/kg Gd-EOB-DTPA in a liver metastasis mouse model (n = 6). The fractional...
Source: Investigative Radiology - Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
This study aims at prospectively evaluating an adapted DWI sequence ex vivo and in vivo in oncologic patients undergoing abdominal MRI. Methods This institutional review board–approved, prospective study included phantom measurements, volunteer examinations, and oncologic patient examinations of the abdomen. Fifty-seven MRI examinations in 54 patients (mean age, 58 years; range, 21–90 years) were included into the analysis. The MRI examination were performed at a 1.5 T MRI scanner (MAGNETOM Aera; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) and included both a standard EPI-DWI (s-DWI; b = 50, 900 s/mm2) and an ada...
Source: Investigative Radiology - Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent MedicineAuthor(s): Saeed Altoom, Omar AlzomorAbstractUnreported cases of diphtheria are still present in developing countries. A 9-year-old incompletely vaccinated girl was admitted with pharyngotonsillitis caused by diphtheria. On day 9 of her illness, renal and cardiac failure occurred. Unfortunately, she died within hours of admission to intensive care with cardiogenic shock despite the vigorous supportive care delivered to her and the administration of antibiotics and diphtheria antitoxin. The suboptimal dose of...
Source: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
ConclusionOur clinical outcomes are comparable overall to the three main published articles on this topic. The risk of infection and benefits of preventative fixation were apparent in our cohort.Level of evidenceIV, retrospective study.
Source: Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
In conclusion, Chinese postmenopausal women with T2DM had a similar risk of incident VFs, but a significantly higher risk of incident non-VF, compared to women without DM. Higher BMI did not modify the effect of T2DM on risk of VFs, but it increased the association be tween T2DM and risk of non-VFs. LS BMDT-score was similarly and negatively associated with VF risk in T2DM and non-DM women and appear to be useful for clinical evaluation of VF risk.
Source: Calcified Tissue International - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
When the Trump administration dropped the drug rebate rule it introduced back in January, the decision sent shockwaves through the healthcare industry. However, almost everyone engaging in this debate is failing to see one very important thing.
Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Source Type: news
ConclusionsFindings from this study indicate that foetal rs5707 polymorphisms may play a significant role in PE/E development, especially among overweight or obese pregnant women in China.
Source: Pregnancy Hypertension: An International Journal of Womens Cardiovascular Health - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
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