Epidemiological features of a recent zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak in Zagora province, southern Morocco

by Adil El Hamouchi, Othmane Daoui, Mouad Ait Kbaich, Idris Mhaidi, Sofia El Kacem, Ikram Guizani, M ’hammed Sarih, Meryem Lemrani BackgroundLeishmania major is an endemic vector-borne disease in Morocco that causes zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), especially in arid pre-Saharan regions where its unique vector and reservoir arePhlebotomus papatasi andMeriones shawi, respectively, and may cause epidemics. In late 2017, the Zagora province, an endemic focus for ZCL in southern Morocco, had CL outbreak. The main objective of our investigation was to analyze the epidemiological features of this latest ZCL outbreak. Methodology/Principal findingsWe analyzed epidemiological features of this latest ZCL outbreak. The Regional Delegation of Health, Zagora, recorded 4,402 CL patients between October 2017 and end of March 2018. Our findings showed that 24 municipalities were affected and majority (55.1%) of infected cases belonged to the Tinzouline rural municipality. Majority of patients were females (57.2%). While all age group patients were affected, those aged
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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Conclusions/SignificanceThe high seroprevalence in all age groups and evidence of year-round viral circulation provide evidence for a hyperendemic situation in the study area. This is the first study to directly estimate infection rate of RVFV in livestock in an endemic area in the absence of reported outbreaks and provides the basis for further investigation of factors affecting viral circulation and mechanisms for virus survival during interepidemic periods.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we exposed apically well-differentiated human NECs cultured at the ALI to the related flaviviruses ZIKV, JEV, WNV, and Usutu virus (USUV). We selected these viruses due to the recent increasing evidences of potential threat to humans (Cadar et al., 2017; Simonin et al., 2018). We show that NECs are particularly susceptible to JEV and WNV infection and to other flaviviruses included in this study. Infection with each virus led to shedding of infectious virus particles through the apical and basolateral surfaces and triggered host mechanisms at the level of inflammatory and antiviral mediators. Given...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
elmy Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging transboundary, mosquito-borne, zoonotic viral disease caused high morbidity and mortality in both human and ruminant populations. It is considered an important threat to both agriculture and public health in African and the Middle Eastern countries including Egypt. Five major RVF epidemics have been reported in Egypt (1977, 1993, 1994, 1997, and 2003). The virus is transmitted in Egypt by different mosquito's genera such as Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, and Mansonia, leading to abortions in susceptible animal hosts especially sheep, goat, cattle, and buffaloes. Recurrent RVF ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
The East African region is endemic with multiple zoonotic diseases and is one of the hotspots for emerging infectious zoonotic diseases with reported multiple outbreaks of epidemic diseases such as Ebola, Marb...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Journal of Theoretical BiologyAuthor(s): Marina Voinson, Alexandra Alvergne, Sylvain Billiard, Charline SmadiAbstractMost emerging human infectious diseases have an animal origin. While zoonotic diseases originate from a reservoir, most theoretical studies have principally focused on single-host processes, either exclusively humans or exclusively animals, without considering the importance of animal to human transmission (i.e. spillover transmission) for understanding the dynamics of emerging infectious diseases. Here we aim to investigate the importance of spillover...
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Abstract Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). It causes encephalitis in human and horses, and may lead to reproductive failure in sows. The first human encephalitis case in Malaya (now Malaysia) was reported during World War II in a British prison in 1942. Later, encephalitis was observed among race horses in Singapore. In 1951, the first JEV was isolated from the brain of an encephalitis patient. The true storyline of JE exposure among humans and animals has not been documented in Malaysia. In some places such as Sarawak, JEV has been isola...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
This study assesses the current trends in re-emerging La ssa fever outbreak in understanding spatio-geographical reservoir(s), risk factors pattern and Lassa virus incidence mapping, inherent gaps and raising challenges in health systems. It is shown that Lassa fever peak endemicity incidence and prevalence overlap the dry season (within January to March) and reduced during the wet season (of May to November) annually in Sierra Leone, Senegal to Eastern Nigeria. We documented a scarcity of consistent data on rodent (reservoirs)-linked Lassa fever outbreak, weak culturally and socio-behavioural effective prevention and cont...
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract Urbanization and rural-urban migration are two factors driving global patterns of disease and mortality. There is significant concern about their potential impact on disease burden and the effectiveness of current control approaches. Few attempts have been made to increase our understanding of the relationship between urbanization and disease dynamics, although it is generally believed that urban living has contributed to reductions in communicable disease burden in industrialized countries. To investigate this relationship, we carried out spatiotemporal analyses using a 48-year-long dataset of hemorrhagi...
Source: Rural Remote Health - Category: Rural Health Authors: Tags: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A Source Type: research
Background and Rationale Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a rare but deadly and highly contagious zoonotic infection first recognized in 1976 in rural Central Africa.1,2 Though associated with high mortality, the remote locations characterized by low population density of these early outbreaks, curtailed extensive exposure.1 In stark contrast, the 2014 EVD outbreaks in West Africa (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) occurred primarily in urban areas. 1,23 Widespread morbidity and mortality are associated with the hemorrhagic fever caused by the virus. An unprecedented number of cases (>28,600) were reported since the first ...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions and significanceIn conclusion, the genotype confirmation of theL.major strain will improve our understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. This is important for facilitating control programs to prevent the further spread of CL. Furthermore, this area could be considered as a model for further research on the risk of global CL epidemics in other non-endemic countries where both reservoir hosts and sandfly vectors are present.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
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