A Novel Mechanism of High Dose Radiation Sensitization by Metformin

We examined the following three conditions: DMEM high glucose which contained 4.5 mg/ml glucose, independent of serum, DMEM low glucose which contained 1.0 mg/ml glucose, independent of serum. And, DMEM no glucose which contained 0.0 mg/ml glucose, independent of serum. DMEM is referred to as glucose “free,” however some glucose was actually present due to the FBS. The glucose concentration in the FBS used was 1.04 mg/ml. We calculate 0.0937 mg/ml glucose was present in the media under all conditions due to the addition of serum. Quantification of ROS Levels ROS are widely evaluated in tissue culture using dihydroethidium (DHE) and 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) (15, 16). We examined both biomarkers and found DHE to be more reliably predictive of cytotoxicity following radiation exposure. Levels of DHE were measured using flow cytometry. Tissue culture flasks of cells in exponential growth phase were grown to approximately 70–80% confluence. Cell culture media was removed and replaced with fresh media containing variable concentrations of metformin and glucose. In some experiments, cells were irradiated and/or maintained under conditions of low oxygen (i.e., hypoxia). Cells were incubated with metformin and under conditions of varying glucose and/or hypoxia for fixed periods of time. Following incubation, sufficient DHE reagent was added to yield 10 μmol/L solutions. The flasks were allowed to incubate for 45 min before removing...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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ConclusionElevated AURKB expression was strongly correlated to TMZ resistant acquisition and poor prognosis, furthermore, targeting AURKB would be a potential therapeutic target for GBM patients.
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Purpose: Among eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, identify whether baseline characteristics impact the benefit of ranibizumab over panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in DRCR.net Protocol S. Methods: Participants had proliferative diabetic retinopathy, visual acuity of 20/320 or better, and no previous PRP. Eyes were randomized to PRP or intravitreous 0.5-mg ranibizumab. Results: Ranibizumab was superior to PRP for change in visual acuity and development of vision-impairing central-involved diabetic macular edema over 2 years (P
Source: RETINA - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Original Study Source Type: research
Conclusion: Multispectral imaging displayed an excellent agreement with fundus fluorescein angiography in DR grading, which suggested that it might serve as a new diagnostic technique and an informative tool for evaluating DR.
Source: RETINA - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Original Study Source Type: research
Purpose: To quantify retinal microvascular alterations using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic patients, and to evaluate the accuracy of decreased vessel density (VD) in predicting early diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: One hundred and two eyes of 51 diabetic patients and 92 eyes of 46 individuals without diabetes were examined. Duration of diabetes, insulin therapy, blood pressure, HbA1C, dyslipidemia, axial length, and the presence of DR were recorded. Retinal VD was measured using optical coherence tomography angiography. The effect of risk factors on VD and on DR was assessed using multivaria...
Source: RETINA - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Original Study Source Type: research
Purpose: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection combined with cataract surgery in the treatment of patients with cataract and coexisting diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: Pertinent comparative studies were identified through systemic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to March 1, 2016. Outcome measures included corrected distance vision acuity, central macular thickness, and progression of DR and maculopathy. A meta-analysis was performed using RevMan (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, United Kingdom). Results: Six studies describin...
Source: RETINA - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Original Study Source Type: research
Conclusion: Misdiagnosis and inadvertent surgical intervention in cases of retinoblastoma in combination with delayed initiation of appropriate treatment is associated with poor prognosis. High index of suspicion for retinoblastoma is needed to avoid misdiagnosis and mismanagement.
Source: RETINA - Category: Opthalmology Tags: Original Study Source Type: research
The objective of this article is to document whether DIRT can accurately map the position of the perforators and measure their influence on the perfusion of the flap in order to select the best perforators to improve the outcome of breast reconstructions with free DIEP flaps. A systematic review of the literature published between January 1998 and November 23th 2018 was conducted regarding the possible benefit of dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT) in DIEP-flap breast reconstructions.The databases PubMed and Web of Science were used to search for qualified articles. Inclusion criteria were women who underwent a breast rec...
Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: European Journal of Obstetrics &Gynecology and Reproductive BiologyAuthor(s): Susie Brousse, Marine Joste, Franck Marie Leclère, Vincent Lavoué, Nicolas Bertheuil
Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionsMetS-Z remained linked to future CHD and diabetes when assessed from non-fasting samples. A score such as this may allow for identification of at-risk individuals and serve as a motivation toward interventions to reduce risk.
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
ConclusionOur results support the hypothesis that the process of atherosclerotic plaque calcification presents a number of similarities with the physiological processes that occur in bone, involving both osteoblasts- and osteoclasts-like arterial cells. Finally, the present study suggests that risk factors, such as hypertension, cigarette smoke and diabetes, can cause the destabilization of the atheromatic plaque acting on calcification process as well as inflammation.
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
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