Therapeutic Synergy Between Antibiotics and Pulmonary Toll-Like Receptor 5 Stimulation in Antibiotic-Sensitive or -Resistant Pneumonia
In conclusion, we demonstrated that the selective boosting of lung innate immunity is a conceptually advantageous approach for improving the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment and fighting antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Introduction Pneumonia constitutes a major cause of death, morbidity and health resource use worldwide. The main causative agents identified in adult patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are viruses (in 27–30% of cases, the most common being rhinovirus, influenza and coronavirus) and bacteria (14–23% of cases, with a marked predominance of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections) (1–3). When faced with overt clinical signs of bacterial pneumonia, the standard of care is antibiotic treatment. The combination of a constant rise in antibiotic resistance in recent decades with a decline in the discovery of new drugs has led to an increase in treatment failure and mortality (4). In 2017, the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan highlighted the urgent need to control the emergence of antibiotic resistance (5). Given this context, a number of new anti-infectious treatment strategies are being developed. The modulation of innate immunity [by targeting immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs)] is a promising approach (6, 7). Indeed, innate immunity is highly conserved in evolution, and this system constitutes the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Moreover, innate immunity trig...
Have the risks of intraoperative hypothermia been overestimated? This meta-analysis examined the evidence as to whether intraoperative hypothermia is associated with higher risks of adverse events.BMC Anesthesiology
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Authors: Polistina GE, Simioli F, Imitazione P, Lanza M, Annunziata A, Fiorentino G Abstract The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recent pandemic that affected more than 5 million people worldwide. Chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is an essential tool in diagnosis and management of the disease. Pulmonary parenchymal opacity is a typical sign of the disease, but not the only one. Pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, bronchiectasis and cysts are probably underrated complications of COVID-19 that can worsen prognosis, in terms of prolonged hospitalization and need of oxygen therapy. In our single c...
Authors: Patil A, Tripathy JP, Deshmukh V, Sontakke B, Tripathi SC Abstract Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected nearly 7 million individuals and claimed more than 0.4 million lives to date. There are several reports of gender differences related to infection and death due to COVID-19. This raises important questions such as "Whether there are differences based on gender in risk and severity of infection or mortality rate?" and "What are the biological explanation and mechanisms underlying these differences?" Emerging evidences have proposed sex-based immunological, genetic, and hor...
Authors: Verma V, Sondhi S, Sharma R, Mahajan K Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a lethal pandemic that has claimed millions of lives worldwide. While respiratory involvement is the most common and most virulent manifestation of COVID-19, there is enough data to suggest that myocardial injury reflected through elevated troponin levels is seen in around 7-28% of patients and is related with increased morbidity and mortality. PMID: 32945641 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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