Therapeutic Synergy Between Antibiotics and Pulmonary Toll-Like Receptor 5 Stimulation in Antibiotic-Sensitive or -Resistant Pneumonia

In conclusion, we demonstrated that the selective boosting of lung innate immunity is a conceptually advantageous approach for improving the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment and fighting antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Introduction Pneumonia constitutes a major cause of death, morbidity and health resource use worldwide. The main causative agents identified in adult patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are viruses (in 27–30% of cases, the most common being rhinovirus, influenza and coronavirus) and bacteria (14–23% of cases, with a marked predominance of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections) (1–3). When faced with overt clinical signs of bacterial pneumonia, the standard of care is antibiotic treatment. The combination of a constant rise in antibiotic resistance in recent decades with a decline in the discovery of new drugs has led to an increase in treatment failure and mortality (4). In 2017, the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan highlighted the urgent need to control the emergence of antibiotic resistance (5). Given this context, a number of new anti-infectious treatment strategies are being developed. The modulation of innate immunity [by targeting immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs)] is a promising approach (6, 7). Indeed, innate immunity is highly conserved in evolution, and this system constitutes the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Moreover, innate immunity trig...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the extracts from herbal plant Persecaria pensylvanicum’s flower, leaf, stem and root. This plant is also known by a common name Pennsylvania smartweed. The antimicrobial effect of the extracts was tested using minimimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC) methods in comparison with tetracycline, a commercial antibiotic.ResultsWe found that extract from P. pensylvanicum kills bovine mammary glands pathogenic S. aureus strain Newbould 305. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints for extracts from flower, l...
Source: European Journal of Integrative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Canadian Journal of CardiologyAuthor(s): Riina M. Kandolin, Christiane C. Wiefels, Cláudio Tinoco Mesquita, Aun-Yeong Chong, Paul Boland, David Glineur, Louise Sun, Rob S. Beanlands, Lisa M. MielniczukAbstractThis review describes the current evidence and controversies for viability imaging to direct revascularization decisions and the impact on patient outcomes. Balancing procedural risks and possible benefit from revascularization is a key question in patients with heart failure of ischemic origin (IHF). Different stages of ischemia induce adaptive changes in m...
Source: Canadian Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The decision-to-delivery interval was ≤ 15 min in most women, suggesting that optimised organisation ensures short decision-to-delivery interval independently of the anaesthetic technique performed. As general anaesthesia was associated with worse neonatal outcomes, our results support the early insertion of an epidural catheter whenever there is any potential concern that an emergency caesarean section may be required.
Source: Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
Publication date: June 2019Source: Anaesthesia &Intensive Care Medicine, Volume 20, Issue 6Author(s):
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
Publication date: June 2019Source: Anaesthesia &Intensive Care Medicine, Volume 20, Issue 6Author(s):
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Accident Analysis &PreventionAuthor(s): Guibing Li, Fang Wang, Dietmar Otte, Ciaran SimmsAbstractHead injury is one of the most common injury types in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions, which leads to death and long-term disabilities. However, detailed analysis of pedestrian head injuries in real world collisions is scarce. Thus the current study used two samples of 120 cases and 184 cases extracted from 1060 pedestrian collision cases captured during 2000–2015 from the GIDAS (German In-Depth-Accident Study) database to investigate the detailed characteristics ...
Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention - Category: Accident Prevention Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Materials LettersAuthor(s): Ramkumar Chandran, Akhya Kumar Behera, Archana MallikAbstractIn the present work, we report on the electrodeposition of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 by a novel two-step deposition process. Initially, near stoichiometric CuInSe2 thin films of [Cu/In] ratio ∼ 1.15 was electrodeposited by single step technique using citric acid-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) electrolyte. Further, the Ga-Se thin film was deposited potentiostatically in tartrate electrolyte to obtain a CISe/Ga-Se bilayer stack. The annealed CISe, CIGSe layers were subjected to XRD, FE-SEM and ...
Source: Materials Letters - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2019Source: Materials Chemistry and PhysicsAuthor(s): Vinod Hegde, C.S. Dwaraka Viswanath, K.K. Mahato, Sudha D. KamathAbstract:Present work reports the colour tunable characteristics of Dy3+- doped zinc sodium bismuth borate glasses with Eu3+ and Pr3+ co-dopants synthesized through melt quench technique. The absence of sharp peaks in the XRD confirmed the amorphous nature of co-doped glasses. Absorption peaks of Dy3+, Eu3+ and Pr3+ions are found in visible and NIR region of the spectrum. The optical band gap of the glasses were determined through absorption spectra. The excitation...
Source: Materials Chemistry and Physics - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Journal of Membrane ScienceAuthor(s): Liang Shen, Ming Yi, Lian Tian, Fangqian Wang, Chun Ding, Shipeng Sun, Ang Lu, Li Su, Yan WangAbstractMembrane-based forward osmosis (FO) technology has attracted increasing interest in the field of water treatment due to its high economical and separation efficiency. However, the availability of a FO membrane with superior separation and antifouling properties is still the critical issue for its real application in wastewater purification. In this work, novel thin-film composite (TFC) membranes are developed by surface ionization w...
Source: Journal of Membrane Science - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Authors: Konietzko U, Gersbacher MT, Streuli J, Krüger M, Thöni S, Kins S, Nitsch RM Abstract Signaling pathways that originate at the plasma membrane, including regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP), enable extracellular cues to control transcription. We modified the yeast Gal4 transcription system to study nuclear translocation of transcriptionally active complexes by using the fluorescent protein Citrine (Cit) as a reporter. This enabled highly sensitive quantitative analysis of transcription in situ at the single cell level. The Gal4/UAS-Cit transcription assay displayed a sigmoidal response limit...
Source: Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Tags: Biol Chem Source Type: research
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