Therapeutic Synergy Between Antibiotics and Pulmonary Toll-Like Receptor 5 Stimulation in Antibiotic-Sensitive or -Resistant Pneumonia

In conclusion, we demonstrated that the selective boosting of lung innate immunity is a conceptually advantageous approach for improving the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment and fighting antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Introduction Pneumonia constitutes a major cause of death, morbidity and health resource use worldwide. The main causative agents identified in adult patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are viruses (in 27–30% of cases, the most common being rhinovirus, influenza and coronavirus) and bacteria (14–23% of cases, with a marked predominance of Streptococcus pneumoniae infections) (1–3). When faced with overt clinical signs of bacterial pneumonia, the standard of care is antibiotic treatment. The combination of a constant rise in antibiotic resistance in recent decades with a decline in the discovery of new drugs has led to an increase in treatment failure and mortality (4). In 2017, the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan highlighted the urgent need to control the emergence of antibiotic resistance (5). Given this context, a number of new anti-infectious treatment strategies are being developed. The modulation of innate immunity [by targeting immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs)] is a promising approach (6, 7). Indeed, innate immunity is highly conserved in evolution, and this system constitutes the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Moreover, innate immunity trig...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Source: BMJ Comments - Category: General Medicine Source Type: forums
Source: BMJ Comments - Category: General Medicine Source Type: forums
Source: BMJ Comments - Category: General Medicine Source Type: forums
ConclusionsThe CAUTI incidence is reduced through QCC, providing a useful reference for the prevention of CAUTI and the development of medical quality improvement activities.
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Tomoyuki Kawada
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
This article aims to classify the severity grading assessments for both insulin resistance (IR) syndrome and status of pancreatic beta (β) islet cells’ function using the homeostasis model assessment method (that is; homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and homeostasis model assessment-pancreatic beta (β) islet cells’ function [HOMA-B] indices) with the focus of disseminating this information rapidly for clinical use by physicians in their patients with dysfunctional regulation of glucose metabolism. It will also assist clinicians to prevent and screen for these individuals who ar...
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Yuanlin Wu, Jing Li, Parham Jabbarzadeh Kaboli, Jing Shen, Xu Wu, Yueshui Zhao, Huijiao Ji, Fukuan Du, Yejiang Zhou, Yongzhou Wang, Hanyu Zhang, Jianhua Yin, Qinglian Wen, Chi Hin Cho, Mingxing Li, Zhangang XiaoAbstractNatural killer (NK) cells are immune cells which are able to kill tumor and virus-infected cells and play an important role in both innate immunity and acquired immunity. Tumor immunotherapy is an emerging model of tumor treatment in the clinic. It is a re-emerging type of anticancer immunotherapy with the purpose o...
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical AnalysisAuthor(s): Juliusz Bianga, Magali Perez, Damien Mouvet, Caroline Cajot, Philippe De Raeve, Arnaud DelobelAbstractA new analytical method based on ICP-MS/MS is proposed for the characterization of synthetic phosphorothioate oligonucleotides. Absolute quantification of oligonucleotides is challenging, as well as the determination of phosphodiester to phosphorothioate ratio for phosphorothioate oligonucleotides. Both are considered as critical quality attributes and should be determined using robust validated methods. T...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
AbstractWarfarin is a narrow therapeutic index anticoagulant drug, and several generic formulations have been approved worldwide. However, there has been no report evaluating the bioequivalence of warfarin sodium according to US Food and Drug Administration draft guidance. We designed a 2 ‐sequence and 4‐period crossover study to compare the pharmacokinetic profile and assess bioequivalence between the test warfarin sodium tablet and reference product Coumadin (2.5 mg) in 56 healthy Chinese subjects under fasting and fed conditions. The plasma concentration of warfarin was analy zed by a validated liquid chromatog...
Source: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research
AbstractImipenem ‐cilastatin‐relebactam (IMI‐REL) is a novel β‐lactam–β‐lactamase inhibitor combination recently approved for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) and complicated intraabdominal infections (cIAIs). Relebactam is a β‐lactamase inhibitor with the ability to inh ibit a broad spectrum of β‐lactamases such as class A and class C β‐lactamases, including carbapenemases. The addition of relebactam to imipenem restores imipenem activity against several imipenem‐resistant bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae andPseudomonas aeruginosa. Clinica...
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: REVIEW OF THERAPEUTICS Source Type: research
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