Molecular and Physiological Characterization of Fluoroquinolone-Highly Resistant Salmonella Enteritidis Strains

This report describes the dynamics of FQ-associated mutations in the highly resistant in FQ mutants in S. Enteritidis. In addition, we characterized a deletion in the ramRA integenic region, demonstrating that this frequent mutation in the highly resistant FQ mutants provide resistance or reduce susceptibility to multiple families of antibiotics. Introduction Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a major zoonotic pathogen worldwide (Bangtrakulnonth et al., 2004; Scallan et al., 2011). Infections caused by this pathogen have been mainly associated with gastroenteritis, an acute self-limiting intestinal infection. However, it has been shown that in different regions of the world, especially in places with high percentages of immunocompromised populations, NTS is a frequent cause of bacteremia (Graham, 2010; Reddy et al., 2010; Okoro et al., 2012), an invasive life-threatening extra intestinal infection. Once acquired, this invasive salmonellosis may result in a fatality rate of 20% (Gordon, 2008). Multidrug resistance and in particular resistance to fluoroquinolones (FQs), a potent broad-spectrum family of antibiotics used for the primary treatment of invasive salmonellosis, play a key role in the treatment failure (Pers et al., 1996; Rupali et al., 2004). Fluoroquinolones resistance in NTS can be acquired through transmissible quinolone-resistance mechanisms (Martinez-Martinez et al., 1998; Redgrave et al., 2014; Hooper and Jacoby, 2015). Transmissible quinolone-resistanc...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Xyloglucan/gelose plus ORS was effective and safe in treating acute diarrhea in children. PMID: 33028102 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemistry seems to be a promising option not only in clinical recognition, but also in the selection and monitoring of treatment effects. However, these methods have not yet recommended for routine clinical use. PMID: 33032462 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Conclusions: (1) Data at our center suggests at least a regional implementation gap in GBS screening and IAP. (2) The decline in the resistance rate ofE. coli for all antimicrobial substances might indicate that the reduction of prenatal antibiotics use is beneficial and that neonatal antibiotic stewardship programs should include pregnant women as well.What is Known:• GBS screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis led to a 32%-reduction in GBS disease in Germany with a 0.75 (92:122) ratio of early-onset disease to late-onset disease in 2009–2010.• Prenatal antibiotic use might increase the risk of E....
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
Abstract Trace metals concentrations of 25 elements were determined for 22 subcomponents of biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste samples representing the United States municipal solid waste (MSW) stream collected during three separate waste sorts. The subcomponent trace metal concentrations and estimated composition results were used to predict trace metal concentrations present in the overall MSW stream along with MSW compost and waste to energy (WTE) ash, which were compared to health-based standards (i.e., US EPA regional screening levels) and to values previously reported in the literature. These estimate...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
Boosting the sensitivity of in vitroβ-lactam allergy diagnostic tests. Chem Commun (Camb). 2020 Oct 14;56(80):11973-11976 Authors: Peña-Mendizabal E, Morais S, Maquieira Á Abstract The synthesis of structurally new haptens and the development of suitable antigens are essential for boosting the sensitivity of drug allergy diagnostic testing. Unprecedented structural antigens for benzylpenicillin and amoxicillin are characterised and evaluated in a cohort of 70 subjects with a turnkey solution based on consumer electronics. PMID: 33033809 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Chemical Communications - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chem Commun (Camb) Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Paramagnetic rims might be a characteristic MRI finding for MS, and therefore they have potential as an imaging marker for differentially diagnosing MS from NMOSD using 3-T MRI. PMID: 33029961 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
Secretary Azar testified before Congress that “herd immunity is not the strategy of the U.S. government.” Yet, frequently the Trump Administration’s rhetoric tells a different story. The Administration’s recent actions on the ground belie its claims of not advancing a herd immunity policy.
Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Tags: Healthcare /healthcare Innovation /innovation business pharma & Source Type: news
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