PERSPECTIVES Epidemiology and Transmission of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Infections in the United States

There are many similarities in the epidemiology and transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype (gt)3 infections in the United States. Both viruses are enterically transmitted, although specific routes of transmission are more clearly established for HAV than for HEV: HAV is restricted to humans and primarily spread through the fecal–oral route, while HEV is zoonotic with poorly understood modes of transmission in the United States. New cases of HAV infection have decreased dramatically in the United States since infant vaccination was recommended in 1996. In recent years, however, outbreaks have occurred among an increasingly susceptible adult population. Although HEV is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries, it is rarely diagnosed in the United States.
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Enteric Hepatitis Viruses PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

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Authors: Zeng Q, Zhao L, Wang C, Gao M, Han X, Chen C, Tu C, Han P, Li J Abstract Background: A high prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) has been observed in patients with autoimmune liver disease (AILD); however, data on the clinical relationship between AILD and AITD remain scant. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between AILD and AITD.Methods: We performed a retrospective study using medical records from 324 patients with AILD, 113 of whom had concurrent AITD.Results: Patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) were more likely to develop AITD (45.8%), followed by autoimmune hepatitis-primary biliar...
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 February 2020Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Yunhe Jiang, Shunan Liu, Siyu Shen, Haoran Guo, Honglan Huang, Wei WeiAbstractEnterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a member of the Picornavirus family and a causative agent of respiratory diseases in children. The incidence of EV-D68 infection has increased worldwide in recent years. Thus far, there are no approved antiviral agents or vaccines for EV-D68. Here, we show that methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), a common drug that disrupts lipid rafts, specifically inhibits EV-D68 infection without producing significant cytotoxicity at virucida...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Authors: Martínez Lozano H, Conthe Alonso A, Bañares R Abstract INTRODUCTION: hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is a common cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. Since the generalization of vaccination, its incidence had markedly declined. Nevertheless, several HAV-outbreaks have been described in the last decade, mainly related to contaminated alimentary products. In recent years, a new pattern of acute HAV infection has been described with changes in the demographic profile of the infected population, which is more common in healthy young men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: a retrospective case series stud...
Source: Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Rev Esp Enferm Dig Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Journal of Theoretical BiologyAuthor(s): Salihu S. Musa, Shi Zhao, Daozhou Gao, Qianying Lin, Gerardo Chowell, Daihai HeAbstractLassa fever, also known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever, is a virus that has generated recurrent outbreaks in West Africa. We use mathematical modelling to study the Lassa fever epidemics in Nigeria from 2016-19. Our model describes the interaction between human and rodent populations with the consideration of quarantine, isolation and hospitalization processes. Our model supports the phenomenon of forward bifurcation where the stability betwee...
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Moves comes after eight deaths in Iran, while in northern Italy towns are on lockdown after jump in cases3.53pmGMTWe are pausing the live blog now but will update it again is there are more major developments. There have been a lot of updates today in terms of how the coronavirus is spreading and what measures are being taken to stop it.Here is a summary of the main points.3.39pmGMTThe European Union sees “no need to panic” over a coronavirus outbreak in Italy that has killed two people and infected more than 100 in the country.The bloc ’s economic affairs commissioner, Paolo Gentiloni, said:“The EU...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak World news Japan South Korea Italy UK news Europe Asia Pacific Russia Infectious diseases Science Source Type: news
Ankara also suspends incoming flights as Iranian authorities try to contain outbreak in countryCoronavirus – latest updatesTurkey and Pakistan have both closed their borders with Iran, with Turkey also halting incoming flights, in an effort to stop the potential spread of coronavirus after Iran reported 43 cases of the disease.All highways and railways were closed at the border between Turkey and Iran as of 5pm local time and flights from Iran had been suspended, the Turkish health minister, Fahrettin Koca, said on Sunday. Flights from Turkey to Iran were still being allowed.Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Turkey Iran Pakistan Infectious diseases Medical research Microbiology Science World news Middle East and North Africa South and Central Asia Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): Nasser Sharareh, Rachel Hess, Scott White, Angela Dunn, Phillip M. Singer, Jerry CochranAbstractAfter the 2014–2015 HIV outbreak in Scott County, Indiana, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted a nationwide analysis to identify vulnerable counties to an outbreak of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and prevent such an outbreak in the future. We developed a jurisdiction-level vulnerability assessment for HCV infections associated with injection drug use (IDU) in Utah.We us...
Source: Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
The recognition of hepatitis E as a discreet disease entity in the late 1970s followed the development of serological tests for hepatitis A and the discovery that large waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in India were not caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). These "enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis" outbreaks had distinctive epidemiologic features, including the highest attack rates among young adults, little secondary household transmission of infection, and severe disease in pregnant women. The responsible agent, hepatitis E virus (HEV), was identified several years later in extracts of feces from a s...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Enteric Hepatitis Viruses RETROSPECTIVE Source Type: research
Conclusion The results obtained from this research shows, in general, the fragility in the social and political infrastructure necessary to improve the living conditions of populations, particularly those that depend on family agriculture in drought prone areas. The conditions of social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities presented in the region can be amplified by the drought process, and can aggravate the impacts resulting drought events, thus disadvantaging the population of this region, as shown in the Fig. 1. The general perception of the interviewees of the health sector shows an agreement with what is found...
Source: PLOS Currents Disasters - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2016 Source:Current Opinion in Food Science Author(s): Albert Bosch, Rosa M. Pintó, Susana Guix Among the wide variety of viral agents liable to be found as food contaminants, noroviruses and hepatitis A virus are responsible for most well characterized foodborne virus outbreaks. Additionally, hepatitis E virus has emerged as a potential zoonotic threat. Molecular methods, including an ISO standard, are available for norovirus and hepatitis A virus detection in foodstuffs, although the significance of genome copy detection with regard to the associated health risk is ...
Source: Current Opinion in Food Science - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
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