What Does the Liver Do?

Discussion The liver is one of the largest organs in the body, weighing just over 3 pounds in an adult. It is found in the upper right abdomen, under the right dome of the diaphragm. Grossly, it has asymmetric lobes with the right being larger than the left. The lobes are separated by a fibrous connective tissue band that also anchors the liver in the abdominal cavity. The gallbladder is located on the inferior surface of the liver and stores bile, which is then released into the duodenum. Microscopically, the liver cells are arranged in lobules with canals carrying blood vessels and bile ducts. At any moment about 10-13% of the body’s blood volume is in the liver. Blood with its nutrients, medications and toxic substances comes to the liver from the portal vein. The liver processes the substances and the resulting end products are released back into the blood and eliminated by the renal system, or released into the bile and eliminated by the gastrointestinal system. Patients with liver problems can present in many different ways including hepatomegaly, jaundice (see below) and abnormal laboratory testing. In children inborn errors of metabolism must be considered. Some common liver diseases are below. Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune Hepatitis Biliary Atresia Cholangitis Cirrhosis of the Liver Crigler-Najjar Syndrome Galactosemia Gilbert’s Syndrome Fatty Liver Disease Gallstones Glycogen Storage Disea...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

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In this study, five machine learning algorithms and twelve types of molecular fingerprints were employed to generate QSAR discriminant models for mitochondrial toxicity. A threshold moving method was adopted to resolve the imbalance issue in the training data. Consensus of the models by an averaging probability strategy improved prediction performance. The best model has correct classification rates of 81.8% and 88.3% in ten-fold cross validation and external validation, respectively. Substructures such as phenol, carboxylic acid, nitro and arylchloride were found informative through analysis of information gain and freque...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
In this study, mushroom residue was adding in lead-zinc slag to enhance the phytoremediation potential of P. fortunei, the effects of three treatments (lead-zinc slag, red soil, lead-zinc slag + 10% (m/m) mushroom residue) on the growth, physiology and microstructure of P. fortunei were determined. The results showed that the addition of mushroom residue increased the biomass, plant height and chlorophyll concentration of P. fortunei, indicating that the addition of mushroom residue can facilitate the growth of P. fortunei. Moreover, the proportions of oxalate-Pb forms and phosphate-Zn were do...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
Abstract Heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is a stress-inducible enzyme that mediates antioxidative and cytoprotective effects to maintain cellular redox homeostasis. In the present study, the full sequence of HO-1 was cloned from golden pompano(Trachinotus ovatus) by RT-PCR and RACE-PCR. The full cDNA sequence of HO-1 was 1349 bp in length which comprised of a 726 bp open reading frame (ORF) preceded by 262 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and followed by a 360 bp 3'UTR, encoding 241 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HO-1 showed highest similarity to that of Takifugu rubripes. Tissue distribution...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2020Source: Journal of Alloys and CompoundsAuthor(s): Yuelin Xie, Shenghui Xie, Haipeng Yang, Yuanming Deng, Haixia Qian, Xierong Zeng
Source: Journal of Alloys and Compounds - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2020Source: Chinese Journal of Chemical EngineeringAuthor(s): Weijie Ding, Min Chen, Ming Zhou, Zhaoxiang Zhong, Zhaoliang Cui, Weihong Xing
Source: Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
New J. Chem., 2020, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/D0NJ00835D, PaperAtefeh Darvishi, Maryam Kazemi Miraki, Marzban Arefi, Akbar Heydari Copper (II)-guanidine acetic acid complex on the surface of the magnetized and raw waste sawdust (SD) as an abundant natural biopolymer was immobilized and employed as an efficient andrecoverable catalyst... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - New J. Chem. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: October 2020Source: Journal of Environmental Sciences, Volume 96Author(s): Elisandra Hernández, Jonathan Obrist-Farner, Mark Brenner, William F. Kenney, Jason H. Curtis, Edward Duarte
Source: Journal of Environmental Sciences - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2020Source: Urology Case ReportsAuthor(s): Andrew Moe, Isaac Thyer, Rajalingam Sinniah, Dickon Hayne
Source: Urology Case Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
BACKGROUND: The opening hours of drug consumption rooms could constitute a barrier to access among people who use drugs (PWUD). CAS Baluard is an outpatient substance use care center in Barcelona, which provides a drug consumption room in Barcelona among o...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news
INTRODUCTION: Shiftwork can be a risk factor for a number of different somatic and psychological health conditions, especially sleep disorders. Shiftworkers sleep less than dayworkers, and 20-40% of them suffer from difficulties initiating and maintaining ...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news
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