What Does the Liver Do?

Discussion The liver is one of the largest organs in the body, weighing just over 3 pounds in an adult. It is found in the upper right abdomen, under the right dome of the diaphragm. Grossly, it has asymmetric lobes with the right being larger than the left. The lobes are separated by a fibrous connective tissue band that also anchors the liver in the abdominal cavity. The gallbladder is located on the inferior surface of the liver and stores bile, which is then released into the duodenum. Microscopically, the liver cells are arranged in lobules with canals carrying blood vessels and bile ducts. At any moment about 10-13% of the body’s blood volume is in the liver. Blood with its nutrients, medications and toxic substances comes to the liver from the portal vein. The liver processes the substances and the resulting end products are released back into the blood and eliminated by the renal system, or released into the bile and eliminated by the gastrointestinal system. Patients with liver problems can present in many different ways including hepatomegaly, jaundice (see below) and abnormal laboratory testing. In children inborn errors of metabolism must be considered. Some common liver diseases are below. Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune Hepatitis Biliary Atresia Cholangitis Cirrhosis of the Liver Crigler-Najjar Syndrome Galactosemia Gilbert’s Syndrome Fatty Liver Disease Gallstones Glycogen Storage Disea...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

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This study aimed at investigating the effects of dietary protein levels on the growth and liver transcriptome in juvenile Ancherythroculter nigrocauda. Six semi-purified diets were formulated containing 25 (control), 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50% protein. Each diet was fed to three groups of 35 fish (mean initial weight: 5.86 ± 0.10 g) for 56 days. The rate of weight gain and specific growth rate increased with dietary protein levels from 25% to 40%, but remained unchanged when fed with 45 or 50% dietary protein. The feed conversion ratio was significantly influenced by the dietary protein levels, being the lowest...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part D: Genomics and Proteomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
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BEST supplements for the heart: Eating healthily is key to keeping your heart in optimum health, but where particular heart-boosting vitamins and minerals lack in your diet, taking a supplement may prove effective.
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Publication date: August 2019Source: Biomedicine &Pharmacotherapy, Volume 116Author(s): Marta Karaźniewicz-Łada, Janusz Rzeźniczak, Franciszek Główka, Adriana Gumienna, Filip Dolatowski, Marek Słomczyński, Paweł BurchardtAbstractPossible interaction between clopidogrel and CYP3A4-metabolised atorvastatin or non-CYP3A4-metabolised rosuvastatin was investigated based on pharmacokinetic parameters of clopidogrel and its metabolites as well as the platelet reactivity test in patients undergoing coronary angiography/angioplasty.The study involved 50 patients (62.7 ± 7.8 years old) who underwent coro...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: August 2019Source: Biomedicine &Pharmacotherapy, Volume 116Author(s): Zhen-Yu Wang, Wei-Jian Li, Qi-Gen Li, Hong-Shu Jing, Tian-Jie Yuan, Gong-Bo Fu, Dan Tang, Hong-Dan Zhang, He-Xin Yan, Bo ZhaiAbstractThe most essential tools for studying drug hepatotoxicity, liver diseases, and bioartificial livers have always been models that can recapitulate liver physiology in vitro. The liver progenitor cell line HepaRG represents an effective surrogate of the primary hepatocyte. However, the differentiation of HepaRG relies on long-term induction using a high concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which m...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Rosa canina match its clinical action – especially considering new findings on the pharmacological disease pattern of OA. The entirety of several compounds including phenolics, terpenoids, galactolipids, carotenoids, fruit acids and fatty oils can be considered responsible for the observed pharmacological and clinical effects. Further research is needed to eludicate how and in which manner single rose hip compounds interact with their molecular pharmacological targets.Graphical abstract
Source: Phytomedicine - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In this study, we found that cofilin competes with tau for direct microtubule binding in vitro, in cells, and in vivo, which inhibits tau-induced microtubule assembly. Genetic reduction of cofilin mitigates tauopathy and synaptic defects in Tau-P301S mice and movement deficits in tau transgenic C. elegans. The pathogenic effects of cofilin are selectively mediated by activated cofilin, as active but not inactive cofilin selectively interacts with tubulin, destabilizes microtubules, and promotes tauopathy. These results therefore indicate that activated cofilin plays an essential intermediary role in neurotoxic signaling th...
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Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Tribology InternationalAuthor(s): Zhengquan Jiang, Yujuan Zhang, Guangbin Yang, Chuanping Gao, Laigui Yu, Shengmao Zhang, Pingyu ZhangAbstractA liquid phase method was adopted to encapsulate tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets with oleylamine (OA) at a relatively lower temperature of 200 °C so as to acquire good solubility in organic lubricant base oil. The effect of OA-modified WS2 nanosheets on the tribological properties of poly-alpha olefin (PAO6) in a wide temperature range was examined with a four-ball machine and a UMT TriboLab test rig in a piston ring-cyl...
Source: Tribology International - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Materials LettersAuthor(s): Aleksandr V. Korchuganov, Konstantin P. Zolnikov, Dmitrij S. KryzhevichAbstractThe paper presents a molecular dynamics study on the propagation of an intrinsic stacking fault in a copper crystallite under tension. The study shows that the defect moves via the formation of four successive structural configurations at its front. In one of the {111} planes, the atomic volume at the stacking fault front decreases by 3%, compared to its average in the crystallite, and an intermediate bcc configuration arises there. In the other plane, the atomic v...
Source: Materials Letters - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Journal of Materials Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Yulei Sui, Yufeng Guo, Tao Jiang, Guan-zhou QiuAbstractGas-based reduction roasting magnetic separation process was conducted to separate and recover iron and titanium from oxidized vanadium titano-magnetite (VTM). The effects of reduction temperature, gas composition, reduction time, grinding fineness, and magnetic field intensity on the efficiency of Fe-Ti separation were investigated. Under the condition of reduction temperature of 1050 °C, reduction time of 120 min and gas composition of P(H2)/P(H2...
Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
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