West Nile virus infections are here! Are we prepared to face another flavivirus epidemic?

Abstract Emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as chikungunya and Zika viruses, are a major threat to public health in countries like Brazil where biodiversity is high and medical care is sometimes precarious. West Nile fever is a disease caused by the West Nile Virus (WNV), an RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. It is transmitted by infected mosquitoes to numerous animals like birds, reptiles and mammals, including human and non-human primates. In the last decade, the number of reported cases of WNV infection in humans and animals has increased in the Americas. Circulation of WNV in forests and rural areas in Brazil has been detected based on serological surveys and, in 2014, the first case of West Nile fever was confirmed in a patient from Piau í State. In 2018, the virus was isolated for the first time from a horse from a rural area in the state of Espírito Santo presenting with a neurological disorder; this raises the possibility that other cases of WNV encephalitis may have occurred without clinical recognition and without laboratory diagnosis by specific assays. The imminent WNV outbreak poses a challenge for Brazilian clinicians and researchers. In this review, we summarize the basic biological and ecological characteristics of this virus and the clinical presentation and treatment of febrile illnesses caused by WNV. We also d iscuss the epidemiological aspects, prophylaxis of WNV infections, and monitoring strategies that could...
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

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We present the case of a 25-year-old woman admitted due to behavioral disorders, generalized paresthesiasand acute respiratory deterioration compatible with a respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring orotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation and empirical initiation of antibiotic and antiviral therapy. Chest tomography showed pneumomediastinum and changes suggestive of pulmonary infection. In the presence of neurological symptoms, a central nervous system (CNS) infection was suspected and the cerebrospinal fluid showed no pleocytosis, hiperproteinorrachy without glucose consumption; cranial CT scan was normal. D...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research
Conclusions: Some studies have pointed out that Latin America exhibits severe difficulties in moving through some epidemiological transition phases, given the continuing high mortality from chronic diseases and violent deaths. However, between 2000 and 2016, there was a convergence among the 10 analyzed countries around the theoretical limit in the average number of years lived in adulthood. Countries that include Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru are still further away from this limit, but they have an enormous potential to increase the number of years lived in adulthood in the future. PMID: 31966038 [PubMed]
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Muscle injury incidence rates observed among Brazilian soccer athletes under 20 years old were similar to those reported in professional players. Preventive measures are recommended to reduce injury rates. Additionally, the number of injuries incurred during training was high compared with match play, and training programs need to be assessed so that injury prevention can be improved. PMID: 31967863 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Athletic Training - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: J Athl Train Source Type: research
This report describes that birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection during pregnancy increased fourfold in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, areas with widespread local transmission of Zika virus during the study period.
Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Category: American Health Tags: Birth Defects MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Zika Virus Source Type: news
CDC updates demographic characteristics, self-reported substance use, and hospitalization dates for e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury patients reported to CDC, as well as the distribution of emergency department visits related to e-cigarette, or vaping, products.
Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Category: American Health Tags: Electronic Cigarettes (e-cigarette) Lung Health MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Vaping Source Type: news
Vitamin E acetate, which has been detected in tetrahydrocannabinol -containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products, is strongly linked to the e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury outbreak; however, evidence is not sufficient to rule out the contribution of other chemicals of concern, including chemicals in either THC- or non-THC-containing products, in some reported EVALI cases.
Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Category: American Health Tags: Lung Health MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Vaping Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Food ChemistryAuthor(s): Vanessa Sales de Oliveira, Ivanilda Maria Augusta, Marcos Vinícius da Conceição Braz, Cristiano Jorge Riger, Edlene Ribeiro Prudêncio, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Geni Rodrigues Sampaio, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva Torres, Tatiana SaldanhaAbstractSchinus terebinthifolius Raddi fruit, known as Brazilian pepper or aroeira, is a natural source of bioactive compounds. However, studies about the antioxidant and nutritional contribution of this fruit in food systems are limited. Regarding the pre...
Source: Food Chemistry - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and WildlifeAuthor(s): Ronel Pienaar, P. Christo Troskie, Antoinette I. Josemans, Fred T. Potgieter, Boitumelo B. Maboko, Abdalla A. Latif, Ben J. MansAbstractThe Theileria are apicomplexan parasites transmitted by ticks to vertebrate hosts. Most Theileria species exhibit some form of host or vector specificity, since under endemic conditions only a limited number of tick species act as vectors and not all vertebrate hosts are able to maintain a persistent carrier state. Data for Theileria sp. (buffalo) suggest host ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Adriano Queiroz1, Isabella Fernanda Dantas Pinto2, Maricélia Lima3, Marta Giovanetti1,4, Jaqueline Goes de Jesus1, Joilson Xavier1, Fernanda Khouri Barreto5, Gisele André Baptista Canuto6, Helineide Ramos do Amaral7, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis4, Denise Lima Mascarenhas8, Melissa Barreto Falcão8, Normeide Pedreira Santos8, Vasco Ariston de Carvalho Azevedo9, Marcos Yukio Yoshinaga2*, Sayuri Miyamoto2 and Luiz Carlos Junior Alcantara1,4,10* 1Laboratório de Patologia Experimental, Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Salvador, Brazil 2Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Quími...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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