New study confirms EpCAM as promising target for cancer immunotherapy

(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) Researchers have shown that cancer immunotherapy targeting the tumor biomarker epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is safe and nontoxic in mice and can significantly delay tumor formation and growth.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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Colon cancer (CC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related mortality. Research over past decades have profoundly enhanced our understanding of immunotherapy, a major clinical accomplishment, and its potential role towards treating CC. However, studies investigating the expression of these immune checkpoints, such as epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), programmed death-1 (PD-1), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is lacking. Here, high-dimensional mass cytometry (CyTOF) is used to investigate immune alterations and promising immunotherapeutic targets expression ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we identify a link between members of the genus Veillonella and exercise performance. We observed an increase in Veillonella relative abundance in marathon runners postmarathon and isolated a strain of Veillonella atypica from stool samples. Inoculation of this strain into mice significantly increased exhaustive treadmill run time. Veillonella utilize lactate as their sole carbon source, which prompted us to perform a shotgun metagenomic analysis in a cohort of elite athletes, finding that every gene in a major pathway metabolizing lactate to propionate is at higher relative abundance postexercise. Us...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, we investigated the immunological activity of a fluoro-substituted Sialyl-Tn (F-STn) analogue coupled to the non-toxic cross-reactive material of diphtheria toxin197 (CRM197). Our results indicate that F-STn-CRM197 promotes a greater immunogenicity than non-fluorinated STn-CRM197. In the presence or absence of adjuvant, F-STn-CRM197 remarkably enhances both cellular and humoral immunity against STn by increasing antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation and inducing a mixed Th1/Th2 response leading to production of IFN- γ and IL-4 cytokines, as well as STn-specific antibodies. Furthermore, antisera pro...
Source: Glycoconjugate Journal - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
AbstractHuman papillomavirus (HPV) infection is responsible for approximately 5% of all cancers and is associated with 30% of all pathogen-related cancers. Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide; about 70% of cervical cancer cases are caused by the high-risk HPVs (HR HPVs) of genotypes 16 and 18. HPV infection occurs mainly through sexual contact; however, viral transmission via horizontal and vertical pathways is also possible. After HPV infection of basal keratinocytes or ecto-endocervical transition zone cells, viral DNA persists in the episomal form. In most cases, infected cells are elimina...
Source: Biochemistry (Moscow) - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Abstract Cancer treatments have, in general, targeted the cancer cell itself. This approach has often been unsuccessful in the long term, especially for solid tumors. Even targeted therapies based on sequencing cancer genomes can be thwarted by genetic heterogeneity within tumors. Furthermore, genomic instability in cancer cells accelerates the generation of variants that are resistant to the treatment. Immunotherapies and anti-angiogenic treatments, which target the tumor-interacting and tumor-adjacent cells, have overcome some of these challenges, suggesting that other methods that target wild-type cells could b...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Mol Biol Cell Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur study demonstrated the feasibility of efficiently identifying both CD4+ and CD8+ neoantigen-specific T-cells in EOC. Autologous lymphocytes genetically engineered with tumor antigen-specific TCR can be used to generate cells for use in the personalized adoptive T-cell transfer immunotherapy.
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered lymphocytes has shown impressive results in leukemia. However, for solid tumors such as colorectal cancer (CRC), new preclinical models are needed that allow to test CAR-mediated cytotoxicity in a tissue-like environment. Here, we developed a platform to study CAR cell cytotoxicity against 3-dimensional (3D) patient-derived colon organoids. Luciferase-based measurement served as a quantitative read-out for target cell viability. Additionally, we set up a confocal live imaging protocol to monitor effector cell recruitment and cytolytic activity at a single organ...
Source: EMBO Journal - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Cancer, Immunology, Methods & Resources Source Type: research
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
The presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is associated with a longer overall survival in advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Despite the prognostic impact of TILs, response to checkpoint-inhibitors and antigen-specific active immunotherapy is limited in ovarian cancer. The goal of our study was to investigate the interaction between ovarian cancer and the innate and adaptive immune system in the ID8-fLuc syngeneic ovarian cancer mouse model. For the in vivo experiments C57BL/6, B6.129S7-Rag1tm1Mom/J and B6.129P2(SJL)-Myd88tm1.1Defr/J mice were inoculated with ID8-fLuc. In vivo depletion experiments were ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we found that cofilin competes with tau for direct microtubule binding in vitro, in cells, and in vivo, which inhibits tau-induced microtubule assembly. Genetic reduction of cofilin mitigates tauopathy and synaptic defects in Tau-P301S mice and movement deficits in tau transgenic C. elegans. The pathogenic effects of cofilin are selectively mediated by activated cofilin, as active but not inactive cofilin selectively interacts with tubulin, destabilizes microtubules, and promotes tauopathy. These results therefore indicate that activated cofilin plays an essential intermediary role in neurotoxic signaling th...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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