Mutational testing in gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
Mutational testing in gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2019 Mar 26;: Authors: Wang Y, Call J Abstract Targeted treatment has become a major modality in cancer management. Such cancer drugs are generally designed to treat tumors with certain genetic/genomic makeups. Mutational testing prior to prescribing targeted therapy is crucial in identifying who can receive clinical benefit from specific cancer drugs. Over the last two decades, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) have evolved from histogenetically obscure to being identified as distinct gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors with well-defined clinical and molecular characteristics, for which multiple lines of targeted therapies are available. Although the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) strongly recommends mutational testing for optimal management of GIST, many GIST patients still have neither a mutation test performed or any mutation-guided cancer management. Here, we review the mutation landscape of GIST, mutational testing methods, and the recent development of new therapies targeting GIST with specific mutations. . PMID: 30914028 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
EORTC (European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer) 62024 is a phase III randomised trial evaluating adjuvant imatinib in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) and no evidence of residual disease after surgery in 908 patients from 11 countries participated. As surgical treatment aspects (tumour rupture and incomplete resection) contribute to the risk o f recurrence, the data of primary surgery were reviewed.
AbstractGastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. They are diagnosed by the expression of markers like CD 117, CD 34, DOG-1 and PDGFRA. The identification of these mutations has resulted in a better understanding of their oncogenic mechanisms. Few studies have shown the high incidence of a second malignancy including papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in known patients of GIST. Literature review on pathogenesis of GIST and PTC showed that PTC targeting Protein Kinase C theta (PKC θ) plays role in both PTC and GIST. Further studies have ...
ConclusionsTo the best of our knowledge, this is the first published report in which the c.1A > C; p.(Met1?) pathogenic variant in theSDHA is associated with a GIST.SDHA pathogenic variants increase the risk of paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma, GIST, pituitary adenoma and renal cancer in an autosomal dominant inherited condition named paraganglioma syndrome type 5. The absence of family history of tumors inSDHA pathogenic variants carriers could be related to its low penetrance. All patients diagnosed with WT GISTs should be referred to a hereditary cancer genetic counseling unit regardless of the age at ...
CONCLUSION: This is the first report of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss induced by regorafenib. PMID: 31381817 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
ConclusionsOur findings identified DKK4 as a proper tumor biomarker for prognosis predicting and recurrence monitoring, and suggested a novel immune ‐escape mechanism driving malignancy in GIST, which might be a potential therapeutic target to improve the effects of canonical RTK therapy and combined immunotherapy.
Abstract Introduction: Sunitinib is a standard second-line treatment in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST). We aimed to search for predictive factors for grade 3 and 4 toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in a GIST reference center patient population, outside clinical trials. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of patients treated in two European Comprehensive Cancer Centers between January 2005 and December 2015. Demographic and clinical features, tumour characteristics and biological parameters were investigated. Logistic regression models were used to fin...
CONCLUSION: Known predictors for interest in CAM such as female gender, higher education and younger age do not seem to apply in cancer patients with no prior CAM affinity. This result together with a high CAM prevalence raises the importance of addressing CAM in all cancer patients for a need-oriented treatment and to avoid side effects and interactions with conventional treatment. PMID: 31331555 [PubMed - in process]
CONCLUSIONS Anorectal GIST is a rare tumor that has a better outcome compared with GISTs arising at other sites in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID: 31326976 [PubMed - in process]
Imaging plays an active role in the surveillance of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). Risk stratification schemes, based on size, mitotic count, and anatomical site of origin of the GIST, help in planning preoperative and postoperative imaging strategies especially in determining the frequency and duration of surveillance; however, there is no clear consensus on the optimal imaging strategies in patients with GISTs who are completely cured by surgery and patients who are at risk of recurrence.
ConclusionsMortality rates were high in patients with disseminated malignancy and in those with right sided colon cancer. Further research should identify optimal management strategy to reduce morbidity for these patient groups.