HDAC5 promotes optic nerve regeneration by activating the mTOR pathway.

HDAC5 promotes optic nerve regeneration by activating the mTOR pathway. Exp Neurol. 2019 Mar 22;: Authors: Pita-Thomas W, Mahar M, Joshi A, Gan D, Cavalli V Abstract Neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) regenerate poorly compared to their counterparts in the peripheral nervous system. We previously showed that, in peripheral sensory neurons, nuclear HDAC5 inhibits the expression of regenerative associated genes. After nerve injury, HDAC5 is exported to the cytoplasm to promote axon regeneration. Here we investigated the role of HDAC5 in retinal ganglion cells (RGC), a CNS neuron which fails to survive and regenerate axons after injury. In contrast to PNS neurons, we found that HDAC5 is mostly cytoplasmic in naïve RGCs and its localization is not affected by optic nerve injury, suggesting that HDAC5 does not directly suppress regenerative associated genes in these cells. Manipulation of the PKCμ pathway, the canonical pathway that regulates HDAC5 localization in PNS neurons by phosphorylating serine 259 and 498, and other pathways that regulate nuclear/cytoplasmic transport did not affect HDAC5 cytoplasmic localization in RGC. Also, an HDAC5 mutant whose serine 259 and 488 were replaced by alanine (HDAC5AA) to prevent phosphorylation and nuclear export showed a predominantly cytoplasmic localization, suggesting that HDAC5 resides mostly in the cytoplasm in RGCs. Interestingly, expression of HDAC5AA, but not HDAC5 wild type, in RGCs in vivo ...
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: CellAuthor(s): Jin Zhang, Hao Jin, Wenyi Zhang, Cheng Ding, Sean O’Keeffe, Mingyu Ye, Charles S. ZukerSummaryThe ability to sense sour provides an important sensory signal to prevent the ingestion of unripe, spoiled, or fermented foods. Taste and somatosensory receptors in the oral cavity trigger aversive behaviors in response to acid stimuli. Here, we show that the ion channel Otopetrin-1, a proton-selective channel normally involved in the sensation of gravity in the vestibular system, is essential for sour sensing in the taste system. We demonstrate that ...
Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Abstract The present study aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that are involved in neuropathic pain and predict their corresponding roles in the pathogenesis and development process of neuropathic pain. The rat model of neuropathic pain caused by spared nerve injury (SNI) was established in Sprague-Dawley male rats, followed by small RNA sequencing of the L3-L6 dorsal root ganglion. Real-time PCR was performed to validate the differently expressed miRNAs. Functional verification was performed by intrathecally injecting the animals with miRNA agomir. A total of 72 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified i...
Source: Braz J Med Biol Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Braz J Med Biol Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Petrous apicitis can present as a headache with features of migraine, and in this case in particular, as chronic migraine without aura. The pathophysiological mechanisms that may underlie the generation of migraine-like headache in petrous apicitis may include the activation of nociceptive fibers within the periosteum of the petrous apex and clivus whose cell bodies originate in the trigeminal ganglion and upper cervical dorsal root ganglia. By treating the peripheral pathology, resolution of the headache may be achieved. PMID: 31535370 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Headache - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Headache Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeA single-stage pull-through (SSPT) is the most commonly performed procedure for Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) and has been shown to be better than multi-stage procedures. However, performing a SSPT in the neonatal period or early in infancy is a risk factor for an inaccurate diagnosis, post-operative enterocolitis, and a protracted post-operative recovery. The present study was primarily designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of home rectal irrigation in the neonatal period and early in infancy, followed by a delayed and planned SSPT in a prospective cohort with HSCR.MethodsBetween January 2014 and ...
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Quantitative profiling of regional protein expression in rat retina after partial optic nerve transection using fluorescence difference two‑dimensional gel electrophoresis. Mol Med Rep. 2019 Jul 25;: Authors: Lam C, Li KK, Do CW, Chan H, To CH, Kwong JMK Abstract To examine the difference between primary and secondary retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration, the protein expression at four regions of retina including superior, temporal, inferior and nasal quadrant in a rat model of partial optic nerve transection (pONT) using 2‑D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) were investigated....
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
Conclusions: This work underscores the potential of DMF to mitigate the severity and recurrence of optic neuritis episodes in patients with RRMS. PMID: 31523122 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Molecular Vision - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Vis Source Type: research
ConclusionsThese results show that DRGS is equally effective when applied at low ‐, mid‐, and high‐frequency in an animal model of PDPN. However, low‐frequency‐(1 Hz)‐DRGS resulted in a delayed wash‐out effect, which suggests that this is the most optimal frequency for pain therapy in PDPN as compared to mid‐ and high‐frequency.
Source: Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Basic Research Source Type: research
ConclusionsNeedle aspiration of the ganglion was performed, and swelling of the lower extremity promptly decreased. At 7.5 years after aspiration, there was no recurrence of swelling of the leg. Although the recurrence rate for ganglions after needle aspiration is high, it is worthwhile trying aspiration first.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract Toxicologic neuropathology for the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is a vital but often underappreciated element of basic translational research and safety assessment. Evaluation of the PNS may be complicated by unfamiliarity with normal nerve and ganglion biology, which differs to some degree among species; the presence of confounding artifacts related to suboptimal sampling and processing; and limited experience with differentiating such artifacts from genuine disease manifestations and incidental background changes. This compilation of key PNS neurobiology, neuropathology, and neurotoxicology reference...
Source: Toxicologic Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Toxicol Pathol Source Type: research
I have a patient with several months of coccyx pain. Worse with sitting, TTP over coccyx. Otherwise normal exam. No trauma, but she has an anteriorly displaced coccyx. Failed NSAIDs and no one around me does good pelvic floor PT. I scheduled her for ganglion impar injection, but her insurance won't pay for it. They wouldn't even let me to a peer-to-peer... they just straight up said they won't cover it. Any other treatment options? I don't want to send her to a surgeon. Thanks.
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Pain Medicine Source Type: forums
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