UV Signature Mutations

Abstract Sequencing complete tumor genomes and exomes has sparked the cancer field's interest in mutation signatures for identifying the tumor's carcinogen. This review and meta‐analysis discusses signatures and their proper use. We first distinguish between a mutagen's canonical mutations—deviations from a random distribution of base changes to create a pattern typical of that mutagen—and the subset of signature mutations, which are unique to that mutagen and permit inference backward from mutations to mutagen. To verify UV signature mutations, we assembled literature datasets on cells exposed to UVC, UVB, UVA, or solar simulator light (SSL) and tested canonical UV mutation features as criteria for clustering datasets. A confirmed UV signature was: ≥60% of mutations are C→T at a dipyrimidine site, with ≥5% CC→TT. Other canonical features such as a bias for mutations on the nontranscribed strand or at the 3′ pyrimidine had limited application. The most robust classifier combined these features with criteria for the rarity of non‐UV canonical mutations. In addition, several signatures proposed for specific UV wavelengths were limited to specific genes or species; UV's nonsignature mutations may cause melanoma BRAF mutations; and the mutagen for sunlight‐related skin neoplasms may vary between continents. Inverse relationship of canonical mutation patterns and mutation signatures for inferring the mutagen from mutations. Two mutagens are...
Source: Photochemistry and Photobiology - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

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Authors: Chen XY, Chen Y, Qu CJ, Pan ZH, Qin Y, Zhang X, Liu WJ, Li DF, Zheng Q Abstract Melanoma is the most malignant type of skin cancer and is resistant to numerous chemotherapeutic and radiotherapy-based treatment approaches due to the activation of rapid and reversible pro-survival signaling pathways. As a result, patients will often present with a poor prognosis. Therefore, novel preventive methods and treatments are urgently required for patients with melanoma. Vitamin C (also known as L-ascorbic acid) is a water-soluble vitamin that is widely used as a dietary additive and has been demonstrated to exhibit ...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
Authors: Jia B, Zhao X, Wang Y, Wang J, Wang Y, Yang Y Abstract Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality among women worldwide, and the prevalence and mortality rates associated with this disease are high in Western countries. The melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) family proteins are well-known tumor-specific antigens; this family includes>60 proteins that serve an important part in cell cycle withdrawal, neuronal differentiation and apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to identify a biomarker within the MAGE family that is specific for breast cancer. In the present study,...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
We present a 48-year-old woman affected by metastatic uveal melanoma treated with nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks). The patient had no previous history of autoimmune disease or dermatologic conditions. At the fourth month of treatment, on cutaneous examination, she presented multiple whitish vitiligo-like patches on the trunk, axillae, hands and face. Diagnosis of melanoma-associated leukoderma vitiliginous reaction was made. Over the following months, the melanoma-associated leukoderma lesions slowly progressed with cigarette paper-like appearance and indurated texture. A skin biopsy leaded the diagnosis of extragenital ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research
ConclusionsRural students reported less adequate use of sun protection than urban students. Rural male students reported lower knowledge scores compared to urban males. Future skin cancer prevention efforts targeting rural high schoolers are warranted.
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research
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Source: Molecular and Cellular Probes - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, has a beneficial protective effect against melanoma via interfering with the TLR4-dependent signaling pathways. PMID: 31509504 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: J Pharm Pharm Sci Source Type: research
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