Functional and neurochemical disruptions of brain hub topology in chronic pain

A critical component of brain network architecture is a robust hub structure, wherein hub regions facilitate efficient information integration by occupying highly connected and functionally central roles in the network. Across a wide range of neurological disorders, hub brain regions seem to be disrupted, and the character of this disruption can yield insights into the pathophysiology of these disorders. We applied a brain network–based approach to examine hub topology in fibromyalgia, a chronic pain condition with prominent central nervous system involvement. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 40 fibromyalgia patients and 46 healthy volunteers, and a small validation cohort of 11 fibromyalgia patients, were analyzed using graph theoretical techniques to model connections between 264 brain regions. In fibromyalgia, the anterior insulae functioned as hubs and were members of the rich club, a highly interconnected nexus of hubs. In fibromyalgia, rich-club membership varied with the intensity of clinical pain: the posterior insula, primary somatosensory, and motor cortices belonged to the rich club only in patients with the highest pain intensity. Furthermore, the eigenvector centrality (a measure of how connected a region is to other highly connected regions) of the posterior insula positively correlated with clinical pain and mediated the relationship between glutamate + glutamine (assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) within this...
Source: Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

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The cell phone blares out reveille. Your eyes open reluctantly and you realize it’s morning, having only gone to bed four hours earlier because of a late-night party. You creak out of bed to ready yourself for work, arthritic joints hurting much more than usual. A painful day lies ahead even after taking ibuprofen. Does this sound familiar? If it does, you are not alone. Nearly 70% of Americans report getting insufficient sleep on a regular basis, and approximately 20% of Americans suffer from chronic pain. Recently, the intersection between these two conditions has become more apparent. The association between sleep...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Fatigue Pain Management Sleep Source Type: blogs
ConclusionsMyofascial trigger points are prevalent in both migraine and tension-type headache, but the role they play in the pathophysiology of each disorder and to which degree is unclarified. In the future, ultrasound elastography may be an acceptable diagnostic test.
Source: The Journal of Headache and Pain - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Chronic pain may alter both affect- and value-related behaviors, which represents a potentially treatable aspect of chronic pain experience. Current understanding of how chronic pain influences the function of brain reward systems, however, is limited. Using a monetary incentive delay task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we measured neural correlates of reward anticipation and outcomes in female participants with the chronic pain condition of fibromyalgia (N = 17) and age-matched, pain-free, female controls (N = 15). We hypothesized that patients would demonstrate lower positive arousal, as well as altere...
Source: Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Abstract: Chronic pain is often measured with a severity score that overlooks its spatial distribution across the body. This widespread pain is believed to be a marker of centralization, a central nervous system process that decouples pain perception from nociceptive input. Here, we investigated whether centralization is manifested at the level of the brain using data from 1079 participants in the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain Research Network (MAPP) study. Participants with a clinical diagnosis of urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) were compared to pain-free controls and patie...
Source: Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe confirmed the frequency-specific reorganization of the insula –DMN connectivity in FM. The clinical relevance of this connectivity change may warrant future studies to elucidate its causal relationship and potential as a neurological signature for FM.
Source: The Journal of Headache and Pain - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This article reviews the acute neural transmission of pain, pruritus, and nausea symptoms, which can begin in the periphery and/or viscera. The subsequent multiple pathways in the central nervous system that become involved in the processing of these symptoms are also discussed. The authors describe human brain imaging studies that have revealed consistent cortical and subcortical networks  activated by these symptoms, including sensory, limbic, and associative regions. In particular, the authors discuss information revealed by the studies regarding the primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, ant...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Current Issue Neurologic Systems and Symptoms Neurology Pain Review central processing nausea pruritus Source Type: research
Conditions:   Chronic Fatigue Syndrome;   Fibromyalgia Interventions:   Device: A Peltier for Sensory testing;   Device: functional magnetic resonance imaging for Brain Neuroimaging;   Device: fMRI for Spinal Cord Neuroimaging Sponsors:   University of Florida;   National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) Not yet recruiting - verified March 2017
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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