Liver Bioengineering: Promise, Pitfalls, and Hurdles to Overcome

AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we discuss the recent advancements in liver bioengineering and cell therapy and future advancements to improve the field towards clinical applications.Recent Findings3D printing, hydrogel-based tissue fabrication, and the use of native decellularized liver extracellular matrix as a scaffold are used to develop whole or partial liver substitutes. The current focus is on developing a functional liver graft through achieving a non-leaky endothelium and a fully constructed bile duct. Use of cell therapy as a treatment is less invasive and less costly compared to transplantation, however, lack of readily available cell sources with low or no immunogenicity and contradicting outcomes of clinical trials are yet to be overcome.SummaryLiver bioengineering is advancing rapidly through the development of in vitro and in vivo tissue and organ models. Although there are major challenges to overcome, through optimization of the current methods and successful integration of induced pluripotent stem cells, the development of readily available, patient-specific liver substitutes can be achieved.
Source: Current Transplantation Reports - Category: Transplant Surgery Source Type: research

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Conclusion: Our study showed that bendamustine is a potentially toxic agent in the conditioning regimen for autologous SCT, resulting in significant liver, kidney, and gastrointestinal toxicity. Further studies are required to assess its safety and efficacy at reduced doses. PMID: 31309088 [PubMed]
Source: Blood Research - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Res Source Type: research
In conclusion, we show here that sEVs are responsible for mediating paracrine senescence and speculate that they could be involved in inducing bystander senescence during therapy-induced senescence or aging. In fact, when compared to soluble factors, sEVs have different biophysical and biochemical properties as they have a longer lifespan than do soluble factors and they are more resistant to protease degradation. The idea that blocking sEV secretion could be a potential therapeutic approach to alleviate senescence "spreading" during chemotherapy-induced senescence or in aging tissues presents itself as a very at...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, the expression of NLRP6 in host's liver is associated with liver injury after allo-HSCT. NLRP6 deficiency in host's liver leads to more severe liver damage, indicating a protective role of NLRP6 in host's liver to liver damage after allo-HSCT. PMID: 31301646 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: International Immunopharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research
vanel Latour Huynh Usually self-limited, hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection may evolve to chronicity and cirrhosis in immunosuppressed patients. HEV infection has been described in solid-organ transplantation and hematology patients, but for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT) recipients, only small cohorts are available. This retrospective nationwide multi-center series aimed to describe HEV diagnostic practices in alloHSCT French centers, and the course of infection in the context of alloHSCT. Twenty-nine out of 37 centers participated. HEV search in case of liver function tests (LFT) abnorm...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Background: Acute graft-vs-host disease (aGVHD) is a common complication of allogenic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and skin is the most common and often the 1st site at which aGVHD develops. Cutaneous aGVHD is usually treated with oral and/or topical corticosteroids as the 1st-line treatment; however, steroid-refractory aGVHD not only impairs patients’ quality of life but also causes significant morbidity and mortality after allo-HSCT. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) phototherapy has been utilized for a wide range of immunologic inflammatory skin diseases, but there is limited information ...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Study Protocol Clinical Trial Source Type: research
Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) can cause an acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) [1]. Acute GVHD is an alloimmune response elicited by donor T-cells against epithelial cells, resulting in tissue injury in different organs of the recipient. Organs commonly targeted by acute GVHD are the skin, liver, and gastrointestinal tract. However, tissue injury in other organs, including kidneys, are frequently detected after allo-HSCT [2]. Acute kidney injury is reported in 50%-73% of patients undergoing allo-HSCT [2].
Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - Category: Hematology Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we determine whether transient reintroduction of embryonic stem cell cycle miR-294 promotes cardiomyocyte cell cycle reentry enhancing cardiac repair after myocardial injury. A doxycycline-inducible AAV9-miR-294 vector was delivered to mice for activating miR-294 in myocytes for 14 days continuously after myocardial infarction. miR-294-treated mice significantly improved left ventricular functions together with decreased infarct size and apoptosis 8 weeks after MI. Myocyte cell cycle reentry increased in miR-294 hearts parallel to increased small myocyte number in the heart. Isolated adult myocytes from miR-...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusions. Here, we have introduced ultrasound-guided IUCT of hAEC using a small-animal model of a congenital metabolic disorder without immunosuppression. The immunological advantage of IUCT was demonstrated with xenogeneic IUCT. This procedure is suitable to conduct preclinical studies for exploring the feasibility and efficacy of ultrasound-guided transuterine cell injection using rodent disease models.
Source: Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Original Basic Science—Liver Source Type: research
Abstract Owing to the increasing worldwide burden of liver diseases, the crucial need for safe and effective interventions for treating end-stage liver failure has been a very productive line of inquiry in the discipline of hepatology for many years. Liver transplantation is recognized as the most effective treatment for end-stage liver disease; however, the shortage of donor organs, high medical costs, and lifelong use of immunosuppressive agents represent major drawbacks and demand exploration for alternative treatments. Stem cell-based therapies have been widely studied in the field of liver diseases and are co...
Source: Cell Transplantation - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Transplant Source Type: research
The authors of this open access paper review the aging of the kidney and consider the prospects for using factors from young blood as a means of rejuvenation. This is a fairly narrow view, as there are many other approaches that should produce rejuvenation of the aged kidney, ranging from those close to realization, such as senolytic therapies to clear senescent cells, or various approaches to stem cell therapy, to those yet to be achieved, meaning much of the rest of the SENS agenda of rejuvenation biotechnologies to repair the damage that causes aging. Nonetheless, after so many years of trying to persuade the research c...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
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