Imaging of extracranial head and neck lesions in cancer patients: a symptom-based approach
AbstractBesides intracranial lesions, neurological symptoms are also caused in cancer patients by extracranial lesions in the head and neck. Common symptoms caused by such lesions include visual loss, visual field defect, diplopia, ptosis, sensory abnormalities of the head and neck region, facial nerve palsy, dysphagia, dysarthria, hoarseness, and syncope. Some cancer patients often have multiple cranial nerve involvement, which is associated with several syndromes such as jugular foramen syndrome. The main causes of cranial nerve dysfunction due to extracranial lesions include bone and nodal metastasis, perineural tumor spread, inflammation, and radiation injury. The location of the lesions causing the neurological symptom may be estimated by the symptoms and physical examination. However, CT/MRI is critical for reaching the final diagnosis and for treatment planning and management of the cancer patients. Moreover, early identification of the extracranial lesions may significantly affect patient care and alter outcomes. Thus, radiologists should be familiar with imaging findings of the common neurological disorders and the complex anatomy of the head and neck region, which should be checked in cancer patients with neurological symptoms.
Abstract A 73-year-old Caucasian man presented with a pink, pearly papule anterior to his right ear. He was a well-educated, retired stockbroker. Biopsy revealed an infiltrating basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The dermatologist repeatedly attempted to contact the patient encouraging treatment. After ignoring calls and letters, he was lost to contact with dermatology for 10 years. In the interim, the patient presented to the emergency room after discovering maggots in his ear. He subsequently consulted a head and neck surgeon but refused the recommended surgical excision. Although still operable, by this time the patie...
In conclusion, a novel yet reliable method for the measurement of intracellular 18F-FDG via GS has been developed, and our results indicate that 18F-FDG uptake is associated with radiation and cetuximab response in HNSCC. PMID: 31620196 [PubMed]
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Ahmed Hammad, Zhao-Hong Zheng, Yang Gao, Akhileshwar Namani, Hong-Fei Shi, Xiuwen TangAbstractAimsColorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of many cytoprotective genes, plays a protective role in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have identified a specific gene-expression signature regulated by the Nrf2 pathway in lung adenocarcinoma and head-and-neck squamous cell cancer. However, the roles of Nrf2 in the development of colitis-associated colorectal...
ConclusionWe found few genetically-related as well as identical isolates among the 32 Candida strains which indicated low cross-contaminations among the patients. There was no relationship between C. albicans MLST profiles and their geographic distribution, cancer type and SAP2 gene expression. This lack of correlation was possibly due to the small understudy population; hence, finding more relevance requires studies with a higher number of samples.
In conclusion, the central schema for swallowing patterning was di sturbed, impairing the integration of kinematic actions for airway protection in severe dysphagia, while laryngeal peak elevation velocity predicted penetration and aspiration on patient swallows.
ConclusionsThe study showed that radiotherapy causes skin barrier dysfunction in all patients independently of clinical radiodermatitis. The biophysical features of this dysfunction can precede clinical symptoms and they can be assessed by non-invasive and objective methods.
Conclusion: Further studies are needed in order to obtained predictive index of immunotherapy responding, aiming to select appropriately patients for this treatment. PMID: 31619066 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSION: The results of the Keynote-048 study have already led to the approval of pembrolizumab in the first line for platin-sensitive HNSCC in the USA and the expected approval in Europe will presumably change the therapeutic landscape in the long term. In the future, effective therapies for patients without a response to programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 inhibition will be needed. PMID: 31612261 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Kamińska-Winciorek G, Cybulska-Stopa B, Lugowska I, Ziobro M, Rutkowski P Abstract The introduction of immunotherapy into the treatment of cancer patients has revolutionised the oncological approach and significantly improved patient survival. The key drugs are immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs), whose mechanism of action is to elicit immune response against cancer cell antigens. Three types of CPIs are currently used and approved: an anti-CTLA-4 antibody, ipilimumab; anti-PD-1 antibodies, nivolumab and pembrolizumab; and anti-PD-L1 antibodies: atezolizumab, avelumab and durvalumab. CPIs have been widely...
Conclusion: rs28362491 polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of HNCs, especially with NC. Additionally, our results showed that no association was discovered between rs2233406 polymorphism and HNCs. PMID: 31612070 [PubMed - in process]