Understanding drug –drug interaction and pharmacogenomic changes in pharmacokinetics for metabolized drugs
AbstractHere we characterize and summarize the pharmacokinetic changes for metabolized drugs when drug –drug interactions and pharmacogenomic variance are observed. Following multiple dosing to steady-state, oral systemic concentration–time curves appear to follow a one-compartment body model, with a shorter rate limiting half-life, often significantly shorter than the single dose terminal half-l ife. This simplified disposition model at steady-state allows comparisons of measurable parameters (i.e., area under the curve, half-life, maximum concentration and time to maximum concentration) following drug interaction or pharmacogenomic variant studies to be utilized to characterize whether a d rug is low versus high hepatic extraction ratio, even without intravenous dosing. The characteristics of drugs based on the ratios of area under the curve, maximum concentration and half-life are identified with recognition that volume of distribution is essentially unchanged for drug interaction an d pharmacogenomic variant studies where only metabolic outcomes are changed and transporters are not significantly involved. Comparison of maximum concentration changes following single dose interaction and pharmacogenomic variance studies may also identify the significance of intestinal first pass changes. The irrelevance of protein binding changes on pharmacodynamic outcomes following oral and intravenous dosing of low hepatic extraction ratio drugs, versus its relevance for high...
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Abstract Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) level plays an important role in conjunction with other markers such as hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid levels to predict disease activity in chronic Hepatitis B (CHB). Quantification of HBsAg is useful in differentiating carriers from active hepatitis in HBeAg negative patients, and current guidelines recommend monitoring of pegylated interferon alpha treatment in CHB infection. However, there are only few studies about the role of quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg) monitoring in HIV-HBV coinfected patients. Studies have ...
Abstract In recent years, there have been numerous calls by researchers to adopt multi-disciplinary and international perspectives to address the HIV pandemic. Meaningful and prudent public health policy should be based on sound empirical data and research. Henceforth, our study aims to contribute to the current literature by conducting a comprehensive global mapping and determine the landscapes of HIV/AIDS research covering the years between 1983 and 2017. Bibliometric and content analysis was used to describe trends in research productivity, usages, research collaborations, and clusters of research topics. Explo...