How Long Does Fecal Shedding Occur for Oral Vaccines?

Discussion Vaccination has reduced infectious disease morbidity and mortality since its introduction. Vaccines can be given intramuscularly, subcutaneously or orally. Oral virus vaccines currently used in the US include rotavirus, cholera, typhoid and adenovirus. Adenovirus vaccine is used in military personnel. As these are attenuated viruses there is concern for household contacts who are immunocompromised who may inadvertently be exposed to the virus through fecal shedding. Additionally, there is a concern that the attenuated virus may mutate and revert back to its wild-form and potentially cause disease. Injectable polio vaccine is used in the U.S. and oral polio vaccine (OPV) is not used. Wild type polio type 2 was officially eradicated in 2015, and type 3 has not been detected globally since 2012, leaving type 1 as the most common circulating type. The World Health Organization states in May 2012 that “…at least one dose of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV) should be introduced into all routine immunization programmes globally, and trivalent oral polio vaccines (tOPV) will be replaced with bivalent (bOPV) in all OPV-using countries. The global “OPV Switch” was successfully conducted worldwide in April 2016 – setting the stage for the eventual withdrawal of all OPV.” Learning Point In an Australian birth cohort study in 2017, rotavirus was detected in 9.6% of stool swabs. “Proportions of infants shedding RotaTeq after f...
Source: - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

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CONCLUSIONS: Patients of all ages, races, and sexes consulted physicians for the treatment of nail conditions. Onychomycosis was the most frequently diagnosed nail condition, and consultations were split between dermatologists, pediatricians, and general practitioners. PMID: 31613182 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Dermatological Treatment - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Dermatolog Treat Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: We identified differences in age but not race or SES in the provision of T-CPR instruction by dispatch centers. We also identified decreased CPR provision by age and income after receipt of T-CPR instructions. In this sample, we found no evidence of racial disparities in the provision of T-CPR instruction or subsequent provision of BCPR. PMID: 31613657 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Prehospital Emergency Care - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Prehosp Emerg Care Source Type: research
Experts in immunology, vaccine biology, biomedical engineering, optics and physics will use cutting-edge imaging technologies to watch the immune system work in real time and explore ways to better fight infections like the flu.
Source: University of Rochester Medical Center Press Releases - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Source Type: news
ConclusionsThe developed HTA appears to have some utility, but needs evaluation in larger studies. It can potentially be used as a training aid, and as a checklist for evaluating surgical performance.
Source: Surgical Endoscopy - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Authors: Pu F, Feng J, Yang L, Zhang L, Xia P Abstract Compared to other diseases, early or atypical spinal tuberculosis (TB) is prone to being misdiagnosed due to the lack of specific clinical manifestations and misleading negative results of various laboratory analyses and imaging examinations. Various methods for diagnosing spinal TB have become research hotspots. Recently, it has been proposed that effective vaccination is a mainstay of long-term policies to combat and control the TB epidemic. However, some new TB vaccines require further evaluation and clinical trials to demonstrate their efficiency and safety...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
Authors: Goullé JP, Grangeot-Keros L Abstract French people have never been so wary about vaccines. The use of aluminum salts in vaccine adjuvants to enhance effectiveness is one of the major reasons for this lack of confidence. The direct toxicity of aluminum is often put forward. Direct toxicity of aluminum has long been known-especially with occupational exposure-to be associated with characteristic clinical manifestations and increased blood aluminum level. Intoxication related to the excessive amount of an element in the body, whether be it lead poisoning following exposure to lead or mercury poisoning ...
Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: IDCasesAuthor(s): Lazara Karelia Montane Jaime, Patrick E. Akpaka, Sehlule Vuma, Angel A Justiz-VaillantAbstractA 56-year-old woman who vaccinated as a child with the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), now tests positive to the tuberculin skin test (TST) but test negative to the Quantiferon Gold assay. She has no history of tuberculosis contact and is asymptomatic. This dilemma now is, should be treated for tuberculosis or not, based only on the TST results? To prevent these false positive results with TST and avoid treatment with isoniazid (INH) it may be helpful to u...
Source: IDCases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: December 2019Source: Biomedicine &Pharmacotherapy, Volume 120Author(s): Xiaomei Zhang, Yue Qi, Qi Zhang, Wei LiuAbstractOne of the challenges for cancer vaccine and adoptive T-cell-based immunotherapy is to identify the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-associated non-self neoantigens recognized by T cells. T cell epitope in silico prediction algorithms have been widely used for neoantigen prediction; nonetheless, this platform lacks the experimental evidence of directly identification of the presented epitopes on cell surface. Currently, mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is an advanced ana...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
This appeared last week for Mental Health Week.Digital tech: making mental health care fit for purposeAuthored by Cate SwannellIssue 39 / 7 October 2019 EXISTING mental health care services in Australia are “not going to cut it in the 21st century” but health information technologies offer a way forward that’s fit for purpose, according to one of the co-designers of an innovative new online platform.Professor Ian Hickie, co-Director, Health and Policy of the University of Sydney’s Brain and Min d Centre, told InSight+ in an exclusive podcast that Project Synergy, an online platform designed “t...
Source: Australian Health Information Technology - Category: Information Technology Authors: Source Type: blogs
According to recent research from the CDC, about 65% of mothers surveyed reported they had not received the seasonal influenza and tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis vaccines before or during pregnancy.
Source: AAFP News - Category: Primary Care Source Type: news
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