The bare necessities: Uncovering essential and condition ‐critical genes with transposon sequencing

In this article we review transposon ‐sequencing (Tn‐seq) technologies and how they have been applied to the study of oral microbiology. This technology has revealed genes that are essential for bacterial fitness in a multitude of different environments, discovering potential new therapeutic targets for the treatment of oral diseas es. AbstractQuerying gene function in bacteria has been greatly accelerated by the advent of transposon sequencing (Tn ‐seq) technologies (related Tn‐seq strategies are known as TraDIS, INSeq, RB‐TnSeq, and HITS). Pooled populations of transposon mutants are cultured in an environment and next‐generation sequencing tools are used to determine areas of the genome that are important for bacterial fitness. In t his review we provide an overview of Tn‐seq methodologies and discuss how Tn‐seq has been applied, or could be applied, to the study of oral microbiology. These applications include studying the essential genome as a means to rationally design therapeutic agents. Tn‐seq has also contributed to our understanding of well‐studied biological processes in oral bacteria. Other important applications include in vivo pathogenesis studies and use of Tn‐seq to probe the molecular basis of microbial interactions. We also highlight recent advancements in techniques that act in synergy with Tn‐ seq such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) interference and microfluidic chip platforms.
Source: Molecular Oral Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: INVITED REVIEW Source Type: research

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Conclusions Prevalence of problematic behavior is estimated between 10% and 20% of plastic surgery residents. Type of problematic behavior are similar between integrated and independent residents. Warning signs on initial application are uncommon. As such, understanding problematic behaviors and methods to manage them are essential.
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Circumspectus Medicinae: Texts and Contexts Source Type: research
In this study, it was aimed to demonstrate that posterior perichondrioadipodermal flap is a safe and simple method for revision otoplasty. The technique is highly advantageous if the primary otoplasty technique is a cartilage-sparing method. However, if the primary otoplasty technique is a cartilage-sculpting method, the efficiency of this technique remains unknown because no patient in this study had cartilage-sculpting otoplasty as primary otoplasty, which is possibly the main drawback of this study.
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Aesthetic Surgery Source Type: research
Background The goal of microsurgical breast reconstruction is to return to the precancer state, maximizing symmetry with less morbidity. This requires a long learning curve, in particular where modeling is concerned. In this context, reverse engineering technologies found an application, allowing the creation of molds that can be used during the surgery. Method We created 10 molds named DIEP sizers, which help to simplify deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap insetting. For this, we designed a virtual model using Geomagic X software to construct the sizers. Our model has a thorax circumference, breast projec...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Breast Surgery Source Type: research
Conclusions Our findings reveal that the majority of survey respondents do not immobilize the extremities after autograft without joint involvement. When grafts cross major joints, most surgeons immobilize for 3 or 5 days. Despite some practice variability, surveyed burn surgeons' current lower extremity ambulation practices generally align with the 2012 guidelines of Nedelec et al.
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Burn Surgery and Research Source Type: research
Conclusions It is fundamental that appropriate diagnostic and management guidelines are developed. Furthermore, this case highlights the importance of educating patient's carers and health professionals of key symptoms to be wary of postburn.
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Burn Surgery and Research Source Type: research
The purpose of this study was to explore the difference in clinical outcome of 2-strand and 4-strand flexor tendon repairs in a single unit in adult population. A total of 109 complete divisions of a single flexor tendon were analyzed from 2016 to 2018 retrospectively. Thirty flexor tendons were repaired with 2-strand and 79 tendons were repaired with 4-strand technique. There was no significant difference in the complication rate including rupture, infection, and adhesions. These results support that 4-strand is not superior than 2-strand and that lower volume type of repair would be preferable.
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Hand Surgery Source Type: research
Conclusions We used SIGs to correct nasal deformity in patients with cleft lip nose deformity. The SIG can minimize the amount of the graft used for septal extension and can effectively correct nasal tip and columella deformities.
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Head and Neck Surgery Source Type: research
Conclusion Based on photogrammetry, primary cleft nasal correction in our patients with unilateral cleft lip achieved acceptable and stable outcomes during early childhood.
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Head and Neck Surgery Source Type: research
Conclusions The use of vascularized free omentum flap was effective in cases involving intractable cranial wound infection.
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Microsurgery Source Type: research
Conclusions Overall, a majority of patients recovered well postoperatively with minimal complications and low rate of reoperation. Our research provides a foundation to develop a risk-stratified approach to determine the need for an ICU admission or early transfer to floor care.
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Microsurgery Source Type: research
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