The bare necessities: Uncovering essential and condition ‐critical genes with transposon sequencing
In this article we review transposon ‐sequencing (Tn‐seq) technologies and how they have been applied to the study of oral microbiology. This technology has revealed genes that are essential for bacterial fitness in a multitude of different environments, discovering potential new therapeutic targets for the treatment of oral diseas es. AbstractQuerying gene function in bacteria has been greatly accelerated by the advent of transposon sequencing (Tn ‐seq) technologies (related Tn‐seq strategies are known as TraDIS, INSeq, RB‐TnSeq, and HITS). Pooled populations of transposon mutants are cultured in an environment and next‐generation sequencing tools are used to determine areas of the genome that are important for bacterial fitness. In t his review we provide an overview of Tn‐seq methodologies and discuss how Tn‐seq has been applied, or could be applied, to the study of oral microbiology. These applications include studying the essential genome as a means to rationally design therapeutic agents. Tn‐seq has also contributed to our understanding of well‐studied biological processes in oral bacteria. Other important applications include in vivo pathogenesis studies and use of Tn‐seq to probe the molecular basis of microbial interactions. We also highlight recent advancements in techniques that act in synergy with Tn‐ seq such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) interference and microfluidic chip platforms.
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
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