Rethinking good cholesterol: a clinicians' guide to understanding HDL

We describe the compositional complexity of HDL particles beyond their cholesterol cargo and focus on their role in lipid transport. We discuss the evidence regarding novel HDL functions, including effects on glucose metabolism, and speculate on the implications for type 2 diabetes. HDL cholesterol is an imperfect biomarker of a highly complex and multifunctional lipid transport system, and we should now consider how new HDL markers more causally linked to cardiovascular complications could be adapted for clinical use. In the absence of a superior alternative, HDL cholesterol generally has value as a component of primary cardiovascular disease risk prediction models, including in people with type 2 diabetes. However, to avoid prognostic overgeneralisations, it is high time that the good cholesterol label is dropped.
Source: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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AbstractObjectiveThe increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) calls for evolving a concomitant screening strategies for early disease detection and prediction of the complications. Progranulin (PRGN) was recently introduced as a biomarker of inflammation in T2DM. However, little data have been published as regarding progranulin in relation to diabetic micro angiopathy among Egyptian patients with T2DM. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate and evaluate serum progranulin as a biomarker for the presence and severity of micro vascular complications among Egyptian patients with T2DM.MethodsA total ...
Source: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Diabetes &Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research &ReviewsAuthor(s): Maged M. Yassin, Abed El-Raoof D. Masoud, Mohammed M. YasinAbstractObjectiveTo assess serum vitamin D status and its relations to other biochemical parameters in type 2 diabetic patients from Gaza Strip.Materials and methodsThis case-control study included 58 type 2 diabetic patients as well as 58 non-diabetic controls. Patients and controls were matched for age and gender. Data were obtained from questionnaire interview, and biochemical analysis of blood samples.ResultsSerum vitamin D was sign...
Source: Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusion The periconceptional environment and lifestyle factors modify sperm epigenome. This alteration might be maintained in the zygote and throughout development, thereby leading to the inheritance of newly acquired pathologies. The role of sperm miRNA, not only as innovative markers of fertility issues but also as vectors involved in the inheritance of paternal diseases, appears to be crucial. Overweight and obesity seem to alter sperm miRNA profile, thereby leading to transmission of different miRNA profiles in zygote, with consequences on embryo development. In long term, metabolic disorders have been described in...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Increasing Upstream Chromatin Long–Range Interactions May Favor Induction of Circular RNAs in LysoPC-Activated Human Aortic Endothelial Cells Angus Li1,2†, Yu Sun1†, Charles Drummer IV1, Yifan Lu1, Daohai Yu3, Yan Zhou4, Xinyuan Li1, Simone J. Pearson1, Candice Johnson1, Catherine Yu5, William Y. Yang1, Kevin Mastascusa1, Xiaohua Jiang1, Jianxin Sun6, Thomas Rogers7, Wenhui Hu1, Hong Wang1 and Xiaofeng Yang1,7* 1Center for Metabolic Disease Research, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pratt School of Engineering...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Giuseppe Ristagno1*, Francesca Fumagalli1, Barbara Bottazzi2, Alberto Mantovani2,3,4, Davide Olivari1, Deborah Novelli1 and Roberto Latini1 1Department of Cardiovascular Research, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research IRCCS, Milan, Italy 2Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-IRCCS, Milan, Italy 3Humanitas University, Milan, Italy 4The William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom The long pentraxin PTX3 is a member of the pentraxin family produced locally by stromal and myeloid cells in response to proinflammatory signals and microbial moieties. The p...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions and Perspectives In this review, we have discussed important milestones from the early description of “Serum-sickness” as being due to antibodies directed against Neu5Gc epitopes all the way to the present-day therapeutic implications of these antibodies in cancer therapy. Some of these milestones have been represented in a concise timeline (Figure 6). While the “Xenosialitis” hypothesis is well-supported in the human-like mouse models, it has yet to be conclusively proven in humans. It remains to be seen if “Xenosialitis” plays a role in other uniquely-human diseases. FI...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In conclusion, FGF21 belongs to a promising class of cytokines that are induced in response to stress and that can be used as a drug, drug target, or through a biomarker, depending on the physio-pathological context. All these findings will become clear when FGF21 will be used as a therapeutic molecule, exploiting the beneficial effects of FGF21 for treating metabolic disease or when it will be blocked to ameliorate disease progression and the onset of disease. Author Contributions CT and MS wrote the manuscript. VR contributed to the discussion. Funding This work was supported from the AFM-Telethon (19524), Italian Mi...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Dan Hu1†, Meijin Zhang2†, Hejun Zhang1, Yan Xia1, Jinxiu Lin2, Xiongwei Zheng1, Feng Peng2* and Wenquan Niu3* 1Department of Pathology, Fujian Cancer Hospital &Fujian Medical University Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou, China 2Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China 3Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China Background and Objectives: Growing evidence indicates that metabolic syndrome confers a differential risk for the development and progression of many types of cancer, especially in the digestive tr...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions: The lipidome is altered in ART-treated HIV infection, and may contribute to inflammation and CVD progression. Detailed lipidomic analyses may better assess CVD risk in both HIV+ and HIV– individuals than does traditional lipid profiling. Introduction Both HIV infection and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) contribute to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) (1, 2). Dyslipidemia is observed in HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals, and is associated with reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and elevated total (TC) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) chole...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Anna M. D. Watson1,2*, Eleanor A. M. Gould2, Sally A. Penfold2, Gavin W. Lambert2,3, Putra Riza Pratama2, Aozhi Dai1, Stephen P. Gray2, Geoffrey A. Head2† and Karin A. Jandeleit-Dahm1,2† 1Department of Diabetes, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia 2Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia 3Iverson Health Innovation Research Institute, Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, Australia Patients with diabetic hypertensive nephropathy have accelerated ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
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