Microbial Adjuncts for Food Allergen Immunotherapy

AbstractPurpose of ReviewFood allergen immunotherapy may benefit from adjunct therapies to enhance safety and efficacy. We review preclinical studies investigating the effects of probiotics and other microbial-based interventions on oral tolerance, describe the human clinical trial evidence thus far for microbial adjuncts, and discuss steps for translating research findings in this area to clinical therapy.Recent FindingsMurine studies support that microbial-based interventions confer protection against sensitization and may augment treatment efficacy for food allergy. Microbial adjunct therapies can promote regulatory T cells and modulate Th1 vs. Th2 responses. There is a wide array of novel modalities utilizing microbial components. Ongoing efforts are focused on translating preclinical data into potential treatments.SummaryProbiotics, prebiotics, and microbial components have all been examined as microbial adjunct therapies in murine models of food allergy. The effects of probiotics appear to be strain-specific. Prebiotics and bacterial components are innovative modalities to modulate oral tolerance. Better characterization of dysbiosis in human cohorts with food allergy, deeper mechanistic understanding of microbial adjunct therapies, safety evaluation, and careful clinical trial design will be crucial for the development of microbial adjuncts for food allergen immunotherapy. Microbial adjunct therapies have the potential to enhance the efficacy, safety, and durability of...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Peanut allergy is a generally persistent, sometimes life-threatening food allergy that is increasing in prevalence in Western countries.1 There are no FDA-approved therapies for treatment of peanut allergy, and patients must strictly avoid peanut and be prepared to use rescue medication upon symptoms due to unintentional peanut ingestion.1 However, complete avoidance of peanut is difficult at least in part due to its widespread use as a food ingredient in packaged foods and in restaurant or catered meals.
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized allergies health onetime syndication Source Type: news
Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a form of desensitization proposed as a treatment for food allergy (FA). Oral immunotherapy involves feeding with increasing amounts of an allergen until a small portion is regularly tolerated. The OIT goals range from “bite safe” to induction of tolerance.1,2
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Food allergies have a tremendous financial effect on families and society in general, with 8% of families reporting food allergy with a direct medical cost of $4.3 billion.1 Food allergies are also the major risk factor for recurrent emergency department visits for anaphylaxis.2 Therefore, treatment of food allergy and preventing severe reactions are major goals in the allergy community for physicians, patients, and families. One of the major questions in the treatment of food allergy is whether to prescribe oral immunotherapy (OIT).
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
This report summarizes the opinions of practitioners who had treated more than 7800 patients and outlines the core principles of safe and effective OIT use in clinical practice.
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Perspective Source Type: research
This report summarizes the opinions of practitioners who had treated more than 7800 patients and outlines the core principles of safe and effective OIT use in clinical practice.
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Perspective Source Type: research
Alessandro Poggi1*, Roberto Benelli2, Roberta Venè1, Delfina Costa1, Nicoletta Ferrari1, Francesca Tosetti1 and Maria Raffaella Zocchi3 1Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 2Immunology Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 3Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy It is well established that natural killer (NK) cells are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Indeed, they can recognize molecules induced at the cell surface by stress signals ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of reviewOral immunotherapy (OIT) can have a major positive impact on patients with IgE-mediated food allergies, increasing reaction thresholds and reducing the need for dietary and lifestyle limitations. However, patients experience more frequent allergic reactions during OIT than when following dietary avoidance, and 10 –75% of patients on OIT may experience anaphylaxis to treatment doses. Our ability to identify patients at higher risk of more severe or frequent reactions during OIT is limited. We review the current data available and highlight the gaps in knowledge which impede our ability to pred...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe reviewed the existing evidence base to desensitisation for food allergy, applying the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach to discuss whether desensitisation is likely to become part of routine treatment for patients with food allergy.Recent FindingsDesensitisation for food allergy to peanut, egg and cow ’s milk is efficacious, but whether such interventions are cost-effective is less clear, due to the issues over a sustained desensitisation effect and the increase in allergic reactions occurring in patients on treatment. Few studies have assessed the...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy impacts 8% of US children,1 with peanut allergy prevalence steadily increasing.2 Food allergy affects everyday activities for food-allergic children and their parents,3 which can increase anxiety and reduce health-related quality of life (QoL).4, 5 Although several peanut-desensitization methods are being studied, no approved treatments exist for peanut-allergic patients.6, 7 Current research is mainly focused on efficacy and safety; however, it is important to consider participant QoL following peanut-immunotherapy clinical trials.
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Letters Source Type: research
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