Parallel adaptation of rabbit populations to myxoma virus

In the 1950s the myxoma virus was released into European rabbit populations in Australia and Europe, decimating populations and resulting in the rapid evolution of resistance. We investigated the genetic basis of resistance by comparing the exomes of rabbits collected before and after the pandemic. We found a strong pattern of parallel evolution, with selection on standing genetic variation favoring the same alleles in Australia, France, and the United Kingdom. Many of these changes occurred in immunity-related genes, supporting a polygenic basis of resistance. We experimentally validated the role of several genes in viral replication and showed that selection acting on an interferon protein has increased the protein’s antiviral effect.
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Evolution, Genetics r-articles Source Type: news

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Innate immunity is critical in the early containment of influenza A virus (IAV) infection and surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays a crucial role in innate defense against IAV in the lungs. Multivalent lectin-mediated interactions of SP-D with IAVs result in viral aggregation, reduced epithelial infection, and enhanced IAV clearance by phagocytic cells. Previous studies showed that porcine SP-D (pSP-D) exhibits distinct antiviral activity against IAV as compared to human SP-D (hSP-D), mainly due to key residues in the lectin domain of pSP-D that contribute to its profound neutralizing activity. These observations provided the...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has reached pandemic proportions across the world. Critical limb ischemia (CLI) in the CKD patient is a huge clinical challenge often culminating in major amputation or mortality. Endovascular revascularization is sometimes not feasible because of potential contrast agent-induced damage to the residual renal function, whereas heavy calcification may limit the success of such interventions. Surgical revascularization in these patients also carries added challenges and risks with seemingly poor outcomes in terms of limb salvage.
Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The first of the three hypotheses about its origins is the Columbian hypothesis, which states that Columbus's crew acquired syphilis from Native Americans and carried it back to Europe in 1493 A. D. On the contrary, the second hypothesis (pre-Columbian) asserts that syphilis was present in Europe long before Columbus's voyage and was transferred to the New World by Columbus's men. The Unitarian theory argues that syphilis, bejel, yaws, and pinta are not separate diseases but they represent syndromes caused by slightly different strains of one organism. Nowadays, Syphilis' origin is still uncertain and remains ...
Source: Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
Our world is amidst a crucial overweight and obesity pandemic that continues to grow, with 2 billion of the world ’s population overweight and approximately 700 million adults with obesity.1 Once thought to be a disease of the rich and affluent, weight-related and metabolic diseases are on the rise across all socioeconomic classes and residential settings. The enduring physiologic and hormonal changes that oc cur with weight gain make sustainable weight loss with just diet and exercise, commonly known as lifestyle modification, not feasible for most people.
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Original article Source Type: research
"Japan Diet" and Health-The Present and Future. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2019;65(Supplement):S29-S33 Authors: Teramoto T Abstract Japan achieved remarkable economic development after World War II, which has led remarkable changes in risk factors of atherosclerotic diseases and led to epidemiological transition in Japan. Nowadays, obesity is pandemic around world, which is same case in Japan. BMI of Japanese population, especially young adult men increased gradually since the 1960s associated with increase in intake of fat as well as decrease in intake of rice, which has been revealed by ...
Source: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology - Category: Nutrition Tags: J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) Source Type: research
New J. Chem., 2019, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C9NJ02460C, PaperSamuel Trevi ño, Enrique Gonzalez-Vergara Diabetes mellitus is a pandemic expected to spread from 422 million patients in 2014 to 592 million patients in 2035. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is characterized by both autoimmune... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - New J. Chem. latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
A recent study in this journal compared codon usage among NA subtypes (N1, N2, N6, and N8)  of H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (HPAIVs) and suggested that codon usage in N1 subtype is better adapted to its host than the epidemic NA subtypes (N6 and N8), which had fewer number of human cases compared to the N1 subtype.1 To date, there are 18 known HA subtypes (H1-H18) and 11 known NA subtypes (N1-N11)2. However, only N1 and N2 subtypes have been reported to cause pandemics (H1N1 for the 1918 and 2009 pandemics; H2N2 for the 1957 pandemic; and H3N2 for the 1968 pandemic) or seasonal outbreaks in humans3.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Publication date: December 2019Source: Microbial Pathogenesis, Volume 137Author(s): Faruq Abdulla, Utpal Kumar Adhikari, M. Kamal UddinAbstractTill now, AIDS, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still a severe health problem worldwide. It weakens the immune system by targeting the T-helper cells. Specifically, the severity of the pandemic HIV-1 makes the emergence of an enduring effective vaccine against HIV-1. Therefore, we have applied a series of immunoinformatics approaches to the four conserved domains of HIV-1 integrase (IN) proteins to design an effective multi-epitope based subunit vaccine which mig...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusions: The national preparedness plans should be updated, taking guidance from the findings in the present report, to address any emerging pandemic virus as well as attending to surges of seasonal influenza cases. PMID: 31612973 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: East Mediterr Health J Source Type: research
Source: BMJ Comments - Category: General Medicine Source Type: forums
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