Applied cardiovascular physiology

Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Anaesthesia &Intensive Care MedicineAuthor(s): Carla Gould, Jon HopperAbstractMaintaining an equilibrium between oxygen supply and demand is a principal function of the cardiovascular system. In times of altered metabolic demand mechanisms exist to maintain the balance between supply and demand. Exercise, haemorrhage and pregnancy all lead to changes in oxygen demand and subsequently modification of cardiac output. During isotonic exercise, metabolic demands of muscle are greatly increased. Sympathetic stimulation and inhibition of the parasympathetic system lead to increases in heart rate and venous return, increasing cardiac output. This allows a proportional increase in blood flow to the exercising muscle. Cardiac output increases throughout pregnancy. In the first and second trimesters this rise is mainly due to an increase in stroke volume, however during the later stages of pregnancy stroke volume reaches a plateau and further increase in cardiac output is mediated by a rising heart rate. In contrast, during haemorrhage, decreased venous return leads to a reduction in cardiac output, with a baroreceptor response due to the drop in arterial blood pressure. The tachycardia and vasoconstriction which follows are compensatory mechanisms in an attempt to preserve blood pressure. The Valsalva manoeuvre illustrates several aspects of reflex control of the cardiovascular system and allows non-invasive assessment and qu...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 16 July 2019Source: Academic RadiologyAuthor(s): Ruoyao Cao, Yun Jiang, Jun Lu, Guogeng Wu, Lei Zhang, Juan ChenRationale and ObjectivesTo describe the application of time maximum intensity projection CTA (t-MIP CTA) in acute ischemic stroke and compare t-MIP CTA and single-phase CTA (sCTA) in assessing collateral circulation and predicting prognosis.Materials and MethodsTwenty-nine acute ischemic stroke patients who underwent one-stop CT angiography (CTA)-CT perfusion scan were reviewed retrospectively. sCTA and t-MIP CTA were developed by CT perfusion scanning data. Image quality and co...
Source: Academic Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our meta-analysis results revealed higher cardiovascular risk in OA patients. This highlights the importance of cardiovascular risk factor management in OA.
Source: Joint Bone Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 July 2019Source: European Journal of Obstetrics &Gynecology and Reproductive BiologyAuthor(s): Kai-Lun Hu, Hongcui Zhao, Yang Yu, Rong LiAbstractKisspeptins are a family of neuropeptides that are critical for the puberty initiation and female fertility. Plasma or serum kisspeptin is mainly derived from the placenta during pregnancy and plasma kisspeptin levels significantly increase across pregnancy. Plasma kisspeptin levels could be used as a potential biomarker for the detection of miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), and fetal development. Kissp...
Source: European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
This study aimed to analyse this delay.MethodsA prospective observational study was conducted on consecutive stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Data on sociodemographic and clinical parameters, decision delay, pre-hospital delay, and first medical contact were collected. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with seeking medical attention within the first 15 minutes of stroke or TIA occurrence.ResultsA total of 382 patients were included, 24.9% of whom had a decision delay of 15 minutes or less. Stroke severity (OR 1.08; 95% CI, 1.04-1.13; P 
Source: Neurologia - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Source: BMJ Comments - Category: General Medicine Source Type: forums
Source: BMJ Comments - Category: General Medicine Source Type: forums
Yafeng Wang1,2,3, Yanan Wu2, Tao Li1,2,3, Xiaoyang Wang2,4 and Changlian Zhu2,3* 1Department of Neonatology (NICU), Children’s Hospital Affiliated Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China 2Henan Key Laboratory of Child Brain Injury, Institute of Neuroscience and Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China 3Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden 4Department of Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
This study found that though it is often associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), it can also occur in those without significant CAD. It was not specifically associated with disease of right coronary artery disease. This cardioinhibitory response may be a manifestation of the Bezold-Jarisch reflex. Bezold-Jarisch reflex inhibits sympathetic activity (sympathetic withdrawal) and increases parasympathetic activity, resulting in bradycardia, which may be associated with vasodilatation, nausea and hypotension. Bezold-Jarisch has been described in the setting of inferior wall infarction and coronary angiography. Origin...
Source: Cardiophile MD - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Cardiology MCQ Cardiology X-ray Featured Source Type: blogs
Conclusions: Many unnecessary tests are obtained to evaluate syncope. Selecting tests based on history and examination and prioritizing less expensive and higher yield tests would ensure a more informed and cost-effective approach to evaluating older patients with syncope._____________________________________________________________________________4)    Reed MJ.  The ROSE (Risk Stratification of syncope in the emergency department) Study.  J Am Coll Cardiol, 2010; 55:713-721, doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2009.09.049  Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a clinical deci...
Source: Dr. Smith's ECG Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
Conclusions: Many unnecessary tests are obtained to evaluate syncope. Selecting tests based on history and examination and prioritizing less expensive and higher yield tests would ensure a more informed and cost-effective approach to evaluating older patients with syncope._____________________________________________________________________________4)    Reed MJ.  The ROSE (Risk Stratification of syncope in the emergency department) Study.  J Am Coll Cardiol, 2010; 55:713-721, doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2009.09.049  Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a clinical deci...
Source: Dr. Smith's ECG Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
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