Validation of chronic mild stress in the Wistar-Kyoto rat as an animal model of treatment-resistant depression

A recent review proposed four criteria for an animal model of treatment-resistant depression (TRD): a phenotypic resemblance to a risk factor for depression; enhanced response to stress; nonresponse to antidepressant drugs and response to treatments effective in TRD, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the prefrontal cortex or ketamine. Chronic mild stress (CMS) provides a valid model of depression; the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is considered to be nonresponsive to antidepressant drugs. Here, we applied CMS to WKY rats. WKY and Wistar rats were exposed to CMS, then treated with saline, imipramine, citalopram or venlafaxine. After 5 weeks of CMS and 3 weeks of drug treatment, all WKY groups were implanted unilaterally with DBS electrodes in the prefrontal cortex, and examined in sucrose intake, elevated plus maze (EPM; decreased entries and time in the open arms) and novel object recognition (decreased exploration) tests, following 2×2 h of DBS. CMS decreased sucrose intake, open arm entries on the EPM, and object recognition. Relative to Wistars, WKY rats showed evidence of increased emotionality in the EPM and novel object recognition tests, and a greater impact of CMS on body weight gain and open arm entries. Wistars responded to drug treatment with an increase in sucrose intake but WKY were nonresponsive to drug treatment on all three behavioural tests. With one exception, DBS reversed the anhedonic, anxiogenic and dyscognitive effects of CMS in all groups of...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: RESEARCH REPORTS Source Type: research

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This study contributes to the first-hand primary research on the topic exploring DBS clinicians ’ views on post-DBS personality change among their patients and its underlying cause. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen clinicians from various disciplines working in Australian DBS practice for movement disorders and/or psychiatric conditions. Thematic analysis of the intervi ews revealed five primary themes: 1) types, frequency and duration of personality change, 2) causes of personality change, 3) impact on patient and family, 4) communication, comprehension and awareness, and 5) management. Clinici...
Source: Neuroethics - Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research
Authors: Kriegel G, Stuckey MI Abstract Myoclonus dystonia is a rare movement disorder that often causes significant disability. Deep brain stimulation of the internal pallidum (GPi DBS) is a recommended treatment for those who do not respond to pharmacotherapy or who have intolerable side effects. This paper reports on the case of a 17-year-old male who was admitted to a tertiary level mental healthcare facility for treatment of psychiatric and behavioral symptoms thought to be related to GPi DBS. Prior to GPi DBS insertion, the patient was diagnosed with anxiety and mild obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Follo...
Source: Case Reports in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Case Rep Psychiatry Source Type: research
Condition:   Treatment Resistant Depression Interventions:   Device: Active stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle;   Device: Sham stimulation Sponsor:   Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre Active, not recruiting
Source: - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
CONCLUSIONS: It is unclear whether there is an increased risk of suicide among patients with Parkinson's disease and whether suicide risk is increased by deep brain stimulation. Further studies designed to assess suicidality in this condition are therefore warranted. PMID: 31269887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: CNS and Neurological Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
Condition:   Major Depressive Disorder Interventions:   Device: Stimulation-ON;   Device: Stimulation-OFF Sponsor:   University of California, San Francisco Not yet recruiting
Source: - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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