Monocyte-macrophage activation is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and liver fibrosis in HIV monoinfection independently of the gut microbiome and bacterial translocation

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common among people living with HIV. There are limited data available on the pathophysiology of NAFLD and the development of fibrosis in this population. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of bacterial translocation, adipose tissue dysfunction, monocyte activation and gut dysbiosis in patients with HIV monoinfection and NAFLD. Methods: Cases with biopsy-proven NAFLD and HIV monoinfection were age and sex-matched to HIV-positive and HIV-negative controls. Markers of bacterial translocation [lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), bacterial DNA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)], adipose tissue dysfunction (leptin, adiponectin) and monocyte activation (sCD14 and sCD163) were measured by ELISA. Hepatic patterns of macrophage activation were explored with immunohistochemistry. 16 s rRNA sequencing was performed with stool. Results: Thirty-three cases were included (≥F2 fibrosis n = 16), matched to HIV-positive (n = 29) and HIV-negative (n = 17) controls. Cases with NAFLD were more obese (BMI 31.0 ± 4.4 vs. 24.1 ± 2.8 kg/m2, P 
Source: AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research

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ConclusionsPA activates PXR signalling and suppresses NF-κB signalling, consequently causing ameliorating inflammation. Results highlight the importance of PXR–NF-κB crosstalk in colitis and suggest a novel therapeutic reagent.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS PVT1 exerts an oncogenic role through activating Wnt/ß-catenin signaling in pituitary adenoma cells. The present results may provide a potential therapeutic target or approach for treating pituitary adenomas. PMID: 31604907 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
Many overweight people are deficient in this essential nutrients. → Support PsyBlog for just $4 per month. Enables access to articles marked (M) and removes ads. → Explore PsyBlog's ebooks, all written by Dr Jeremy Dean: Accept Yourself: How to feel a profound sense of warmth and self-compassion The Anxiety Plan: 42 Strategies For Worry, Phobias, OCD and Panic Spark: 17 Steps That Will Boost Your Motivation For Anything Activate: How To Find Joy Again By Changing What You Do
Source: PsyBlog | Psychology Blog - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Weight Loss Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, a polypharmacology approach of combining established, prolongevity drug inhibitors of specific nodes may be the most effective way to target the nutrient-sensing network to improve late-life health. Deletion of p38α in Neurons Slows Neural Stem Cell Decline and Loss of Cognitive Function in Mice https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/10/deletion-of-p38%ce%b1-in-neurons-slows-neural-stem-cell-decline-and-loss-of-cognitive-function-in-mice/ Researchers here provide evidence for p38α to be involved in the regulation of diminished neural stem cell activity with age. It is thought...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Neurological insights into how the brain processes stress, and how it can develop into depression, have led to new interventionsIt ’s a damp, midweek afternoon. Even so, Cardiff’s walk-in stress management course has pulled in more than 50 people. There are teenagers, white-haired older people with walking aids, people from Caucasian, Asian and Middle Eastern backgrounds. There is at least one pair who look like a parent an d child – I’m unsure who is there to support whom.The course instructor makes it clear that she is not going to ask people to speak out about their own stress levels in this firs...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Neuroscience Depression Anxiety Mental health Society Psychology Cities Source Type: news
Authors: Sarikaya I, Albatineh A, Sarikaya A Abstract Aim: Standardized uptake value (SUV) normalized by body weight is affected by amount of body fat. Higher (overestimated) SUV is measured in normal tissues and lesions in obese patients than the patients with normal body mass index (BMI). SUV calculated/normalized by lean body mass (LBM, fat free body mass) (SUVLBM or SUL) instead of total weight is recommended to provide more accurate SUV results. Given importance of a quantitative PET parameter particularly when comparing PET studies, in this study we aimed to re-visit and re-assess the effect of obesity on SUV...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: J Nucl Med Technol Source Type: research
ConclusionStudies on arthroplasty survival should systematically mention gender and diabetes status and beware of potential group incomparability.Level of evidenceIII, cohort study.
Source: Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Journal Name: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism Issue: Ahead of print
Source: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to suggest the presence of PFAPA syndrome in the Chinese adult population. Clinicians should take into account PFAPA syndrome when diagnosing patients suffering from recurrent fevers of unknown origin, especially those with pharyngitis, cervical adenopathy and aphthous stomatitis. PMID: 31603071 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Tags: Clin Exp Rheumatol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 October 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Nour A. Al-Sawalha, Osama Y. Alshogran, Mofleh S. Awawdeh, Basima A. AlmomaniAbstractAimsThe prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing in several countries. The MetS is characterized by the occurrence of at least three of the following risk factors: decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased blood pressure, raised fasting blood glucose, elevated triglycerides, and abdominal obesity. There is a growing evidence of the role of l-carnosine in improving lipid profile and enhancement of the antioxidant activity. However,...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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