Pathways from built environment to health: A conceptual framework linking behavior and exposure-based impacts

Publication date: March 2019Source: Journal of Transport &Health, Volume 12Author(s): Lawrence D. Frank, Nicole Iroz-Elardo, Kara E. MacLeod, Andy HongAbstractBackground and purposeA growing body of evidence documents multiple ways in which land use and transportation investments influence health. To date, most evidence linking the built environment to health either focuses on behavioral change or environmental exposures. Few studies simultaneously assess how behavior and exposure-based impacts of the built environment interact. This is concerning as increased walkability and transit access can possibly lead to increased exposure to air pollution and injury risk.MethodThis paper synthesizes recent research on behavior and exposure-based mechanisms that connect land use and transportation investments with various health outcomes. Exploring the nexus between these pathways provides a framework to identify priority areas for research to inform policies and investments.ResultsThe most studied pathway articulates how land use and transportation can support healthy behaviors, such as increased physical activity, healthy diet, and social interactions. The second pathway articulates exposure to harmful substances and stressors and potential differential impacts by travel modes. Increased rates of active travel lead to lower generation of vehicle emissions and kilometers traveled; but may actually result in increased exposure which may have adverse effects on sensitive populations...
Source: Journal of Transport and Health - Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: PolymerAuthor(s): Eric Euchler, Ricardo Bernhardt, Konrad Schneider, Gert Heinrich, Sven Wießner, Toshio TadaAbstractIt is known, that under constrained tensile deformation the mechanical response and the failure behavior of rubber vulcanizates reveal unlikely features. Due to multiaxial stress concentrations, the formation of internal cracks can be initiated.For the first time, fundamental investigations on unfilled styrene-butadiene-rubber pancake specimens were performed. Via in situ dilatometry and X-ray microtomography experiments, the damage process und...
Source: Polymer - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
In conclusion, we demonstrate a facile way to improve morphological and electrical properties of ZnO layer by simply adding CV/EV in sol–gel ZnO to fabricate high performance PSCs.
Source: Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 529Author(s): Collin J. Wilkinson, John C. MauroAbstractA recent article in this journal [D.L. Sidebottom, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 516 (2019) 63–66] proposes a “universal topological pattern” for the composition dependence of liquid fragility in terms of the number of coarse-grained topological constraints in the glass-forming network. This “universal topological pattern,” however, is reported without any physical derivation from Angell's definition of liquid fragility. Alternatively, temperature-dependent constrai...
Source: Journal of Non Crystalline Solids - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 529Author(s): T.V. Perevalov, V.A. Volodin, G.N. Kamaev, G.K. Krivyakin, V.A. Gritsenko, I.P. ProsvirinAbstractThe electronic structures of SiOx:H films synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on silicon and glass substrates were studied. The film stoichiometric parameter x varied in the range from 0.57 to 2 depending on the oxygen supply to the reactor conditions. According to XPS, Raman scattering and high-resolution electron microscopy, a core-shell model of the a-SiOx:H structure was applied. According to this model, the...
Source: Journal of Non Crystalline Solids - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 529Author(s): A.S. Asyikin, M.K. Halimah, A.A. Latif, M.F. Faznny, S.N. NazrinAbstractGlasses with chemical composition {[(TeO₂)0.7 (B₂O₃)0.3]0.8 [SiO₂]0.2}1-x {Sm₂O₃ NPs}x where x = 0.01 to 0.05 molar fraction have been fabricated using conventional melt-quenching method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra reveal the presence of TeO3, SiO2 and BO3 structural units in the glass network. The existence of samarium oxide nanoparticles was recorded through high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with part...
Source: Journal of Non Crystalline Solids - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 529Author(s): David SidebottomAbstractIn their Comment, Wilkinson and Mauro (WM) raise the issue that our coarse-graining interpretation of the fragility in network forming glasses lacks the first derivative quality inherent in their temperature-dependent constraint theory (TDCT). In response, we clarify this issue and acknowledge that both approaches are in conflict and each is struggling for validation. As something of a way forward, we challenge proponents of TDCT to resolve a puzzle in the fragility trends of simple binary alkali oxide glasses.
Source: Journal of Non Crystalline Solids - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 January 2020Source: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Volume 856Author(s): Nagaraj Radha, Kanakaraj Aruchamy, H.M. Manohara, M.R. Nidhi, Dibyendu Mondal, Sanna Kotrappanavar Nataraj, Debasis Ghosh
Source: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 March 2020Source: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 817Author(s): Yanting Tian, Xiang Guo, Pingping Wu, Xu Zhang, Zhongquan NieAbstractNi-based anode supports with straight open pores were well prepared using self-organization process. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results of YSZ ceramic skeletons showed that honeycomb-like structures with highly ordered straight pores were obtained. The regulation of solid loading and CaCl2 concentration on the morphology of YSZ skeletons were discussed. The YSZ skeleton with solid loading of 10 wt% and CaCl2 concentration of 1.5 mol L&mi...
Source: Journal of Alloys and Compounds - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 March 2020Source: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 817Author(s): Jing Wen, Nathalie Allain, Eric FleuryAbstractSince the crystallographic orientation relationships (ORs) play an important role in the hydrides precipitation as well as in the deformation behavior of α-titanium alloys containing hydrides, the present work aimed at exploring thoroughly the ORs and their interface planes between the fcc-hydride and the α-titanium using the stereographic projections of the corresponding OR plane and OR direction and a trace analysis. In addition to the general reported two ORs in the &alph...
Source: Journal of Alloys and Compounds - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
This study provides a new way to explore the application of inexpensive co-catalysts on a large scale.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Alloys and Compounds - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
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