Circulating microRNAs in head and neck cancer: a scoping review of methods

AbstractCirculating microRNAs have been described as head and neck cancer biomarkers in multiple anatomical subsites including the oral cavity, nasopharynx, larynx, salivary glands and the skin. While there is an expanding volume of published literature showing the significance of individual or panels of microRNAs, the clinical validation of candidate biomarkers is lacking. The various methods used to collect, store, process and interpret these microRNAs are likely introducing bias and contributing to the inconsistent results. A systematic scoping review was conducted using PRISMA standards to identify published English literature between 2007 and 2018. Pubmed and EMBASE databases were searched using specific keyword combinations related to head and neck cancer, circulating samples (whole blood, plasma or serum) and microRNA. Following the title and abstract review, two primary authors appraised the articles for their suitability to include in the review based on the detail of methodological descriptions. Thirty suitable articles were identified relating to nasopharyngeal carcinoma, oral cavity, oropharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma as well as primary salivary gland malignancies. Comprehensive methodological analysis identified poor reporting of detailed methodology, variations in collection, storage, pre-processing, RNA isolation and relative quantification including normalisation method. We recommend standardising the pre-processing, RNA isolation, normalisati...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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AbstractHead and neck cancers, including those of the lip and oral cavity, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, oropharynx, larynx and nasopharynx represent nearly 700,000 new cases and 380,000 deaths worldwide per annum, and account for over 10,000 annual deaths in the United States alone. Improvement in outcomes are needed for patients with recurrent and or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted the first immunotherapeutic approvals – the anti-PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab – for the treatment of pa...
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This article is a continuation of the “Do You Know Your Guidelines” series, initiated by the Education committee of the American Head and Neck Society. Treatment guidelines for advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma are reviewed here, including the critical roles of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and the recent application of immunotherapy agents. We will be limiting this discussion to include cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx. It should be noted that much of the article pertains to human papillomavirus (HPV)‐negative oropharyngeal cancer where applicable, as HPV‐positive ...
Source: Head and Neck - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Tags: PRACTICE GUIDELINES Source Type: research
Conclusion HPV-positive HNSCC in the veteran population has a significantly improved prognosis relative to similarly staged patients with HPV-negative disease. This study demonstrates that the primary treatment modality – chemoradiation, radiation therapy, or surgery – does not impact overall survival among veterans with HPV-positive HNSCC.
Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusion Concurrent chemoradiotherapy using weekly cisplatin at 40mg/m2 per week is an effective, well tolerated regimen allowing most patients to receive at least 5 cycles of chemotherapy. However, a phase III randomized control trial comparing the standard dose of 100mg/m2 cisplatin tri-weekly with a weekly regimen is needed to establish the long term clinical outcome. [...] Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, BrazilArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  open access Full text
Source: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
Head and neck cancer (HNC) includes tumours of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx. Nasopharyngeal cancer is also a HNC sub-site but is usually considered a separate disease with a distinct aetiology and particular characteristics [1]. Approximately 600,000 cases of HNC are diagnosed each year, and HNC accounts for 4% of cancer mortality worldwide [2]. More than 90% of HNC are squamous cell carcinoma [3]. The main risk factors associated with HNC are smoking and alcohol consumption, and the interaction between these factors can increase the risk of HNC [4].
Source: Oral Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignancy of head and neck region arising from mucosal linings of the upper aerodigestive tract, comprising (1) nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, (2) nasopharynx, (3) hypopharynx, larynx, and trachea, and (4) oral cavity and oropharynx [1,2]. Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are characterized by high morbidity and mortality rates and strong tendency to regional and distant metastasis [1–4]. These tumor characteristics depend on individual properties of neoplastic cells and tumor microenvironment, which is comprised by diverse inflammatory/immune cells ...
Source: Oral Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Squamous cell carcinoma arises from multiple anatomic subsites in the head and neck region. The risk factors for development of cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx include tobacco exposure and alcohol dependence, and infection with oncogenic viruses is associated with cancers developing in the nasopharynx, palatine, and lingual tonsils of the oropharynx. The incidence of human papillomavirus–associated oropharyngeal cancer is increasing in developed countries, and by 2020, the annual incidence could surpass that of cervical cancer.
Source: Mayo Clinic Proceedings - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Symposium on Neoplastic Hematology and Medical Oncology Source Type: research
Head and neck cancer (HNC) ranks fifth among the most common neoplasms, with>500.000 new cases diagnosed every year [1]. HNC comprises a group of malignant tumours located in the upper aero-digestive tract which show similar biological behaviour. The classification of HNC can be based on the anatomic sites of origin (i.e. nasopharynx, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, oropharynx, oral cavity, larynx, hypopharynx, salivary glands, thyroid glands) as well as on the histological type, with squamous cell carcinoma being the most frequent type of disease.
Source: Oral Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
More than 90% of all head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas [1], which encompass epithelial cancers of the oral cavity, sinuses, nasopharynx, pharynx and larynx. In 2012, the global incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) was 7% [2], with more than 600,000 cases reported worldwide per year, making it the sixth most common cancer in the world [2–4]. Known risk factors for SCCHN are alcohol consumption and smoking; infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), primarily HPV-16, has also been mainly associated with cancer of the oropharynx [5].
Source: Oral Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Conclusions Preventable risk factor needs to be addressed. Counselling all patients and screening of high risk group along with health awareness creation may be effective in risk reduction.
Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
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