Rheumatic heart disease in the modern era: recent developments and current challenges

Abstract Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a major cause of preventable death and disability in children and young adults. Despite significant advances in medical technology and increased understanding of disease mechanisms, RHD continues to be a serious public health problem throughout the world, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Echocardiographic screening has played a key role in improving the accuracy of diagnosing RHD and has highlighted the disease burden. Most affected patients present with severe valve disease and limited access to life-saving cardiac surgery or percutaneous valve intervention, contributing to increased mortality and other complications. Although understanding of disease pathogenesis has advanced in recent years, key questions remain to be addressed. Preventing or providing early treatment for streptococcal infections is the most important step in reducing the burden of this disease.
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

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In this study we show, for the first time, significant alterations in cholesterol efflux capacity in adolescents throughout the range of BMI, a relationship between six circulating adipocyte-derived EVs microRNAs targeting ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux capacity, and in vitro alterations of cholesterol efflux in macrophages exposed to visceral adipose tissue adipocyte-derived EVs acquired from human subjects. These results suggest that adipocyte-derived EVs, and their microRNA content, may play a critical role in the early pathological development of ASCVD. Commentary on the Developing UK Government Position on Hea...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, we found that cofilin competes with tau for direct microtubule binding in vitro, in cells, and in vivo, which inhibits tau-induced microtubule assembly. Genetic reduction of cofilin mitigates tauopathy and synaptic defects in Tau-P301S mice and movement deficits in tau transgenic C. elegans. The pathogenic effects of cofilin are selectively mediated by activated cofilin, as active but not inactive cofilin selectively interacts with tubulin, destabilizes microtubules, and promotes tauopathy. These results therefore indicate that activated cofilin plays an essential intermediary role in neurotoxic signaling th...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Abstract Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a major cause of preventable death and disability in children and young adults. Despite significant advances in medical technology and increased understanding of disease mechanisms, RHD continues to be a serious public health problem throughout the world, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Echocardiographic screening has played a key role in improving the accuracy of diagnosing RHD and has highlighted the disease burden. Most affected patients present with severe valve disease and limited access to life-saving cardiac surgery or percutaneous valve intervention, co...
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are an alternative for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), and have emerged as the preferred choice, particularly in patients newly started on anticoagulation. Both physicians and patients are becoming more accustomed to the use of these drugs in clinical practice. However, many unresolved questions on how to optimally use these agents in specific clinical situations remain. In 2013, the first “EHRA Practical Guide” was published to provide practical guidance for situations; an update was published in 2015...
Source: European Heart Journal - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, senescence of vascular cells promotes the development of age-related disorders, including heart failure, diabetes, and atherosclerotic diseases, while suppression of vascular cell senescence ameliorates phenotypic features of aging in various models. Recent findings have indicated that specific depletion of senescent cells reverses age-related changes. Although the biological networks contributing to maintenance of homeostasis are extremely complex, it seems reasonable to explore senolytic agents that can act on specific cellular components or tissues. Several clinical trials of senolytic agents are currentl...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Older patients with depression may be at greater risk of death following a procedure to replace a damaged aortic valve of the heart, reports astudy published today inJAMA Cardiology.“The clinical implications of our findings support active screening for depression before and after aortic valve procedures to identify patients who may benefit from further psychiatric evaluation for the diagnosis and treatment of a depressive disorder,” wrote Jonathan Afilalo, M.D., M.Sc., of Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, and colleagues.The study included patients who were at least 70 years of age with symptomatic aortic sten...
Source: Psychiatr News - Category: Psychiatry Tags: aortic stenosis aortic valve replacement cerebrovascular disease COPD depression diabetes Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form hypertension Jonathan Afilalo kidney disease Source Type: research
This study developed the first procedure for the removal of epithelium from the lung airway with the full preservation of vascular epithelium, which could be applied in vivo to treat diseases of lung epithelium. Whole lung scaffolds with an intact vascular network may also allow for recellularization using patient-specific cells and bioengineering of chimeric lungs for transplantation. In addition to the clinical potential, lung scaffolds lacking an intact epithelial layer but with functional vascular and interstitial compartments may also serve as a valuable physiological model for investigating (i) lung development, (ii)...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, researchers analysed data of millions of British patients between 1995 and 2015 to see if this claim held true. They tracked people who were obese at the start of the study, defined as people with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more, who had no evidence of heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol or diabetes at this point. They found these people who were obese but "metabolically healthy" were at higher risk of developing heart disease, strokes and heart failure than people of normal weight. No such thing as 'fat but fit', major study finds Several studies in the pas...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusions/SignificanceOur cost-effectiveness analysis tool is designed to inform priorities for ARF/RHD control programs in Africa at the national or subnational level. In contrast to previous literature, our preliminary findings suggest PP could be the most efficient and cheapest approach in poor countries. We provide our model for public use in the form of a Supplementary File. Our research has immediate policy relevance and calls for renewed efforts to scale up RHD prevention.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
This study confirms that having an apple-shaped body - or a high waist circumference - can lead to heart disease, and that reducing your waist size can reduce your risks." The results of the new research expands on the results of a previously published study called FaCTor-64, which showed that the greater a person's body mass index, the greater their risk of heart disease. FaCTor-64 enrolled patients with diabetes who were considered to be at high risk for heart attacks, strokes, or death but had no evidence of heart disease as of yet. Study participants completed randomized screening for coronary artery diseas...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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