Cardiovascular Disease in Gout and the  Protective Effect of Treatments Including Urate-Lowering Therapy

AbstractCardiovascular disease affects more than 90 million Americans. Recent studies support an increased cardiovascular disease risk in inflammatory conditions, such as gout. Increased serum urate levels, or hyperuricemia, are a precursor to gout. Data from meta-analyses have shown hyperuricemia to be linked to hypertension and coronary heart disease. Similarly, gout has been associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents, and death from cardiovascular disease in randomized clinical trials. Urate-lowering therapy reduces serum urate and may decrease systemic inflammation, generation of oxidative species, and reverses endothelial dysfunction through hyperuricemia-dependent or hyperuricemia-independent pathways. Cardioprotective benefits of allopurinol, a first-line agent for the treatment of gout, have been demonstrated to potentially prevent myocardial infarction, stroke, atrial fibrillation, and other cardiovascular diseases in observational studies in select populations. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs)  have also examined the role of newer urate-lowering therapies, such as febuxostat and lesinurad, and their risk of cardiovascular-specific mortality in comparison to allopurinol. A large post-marketing study of febuxostat vs. allopurinol showed higher all-cause and cardiovascular-specific mortalit y in the febuxostat group than in the allopurinol group; a major study limitation was that large numbers of patients were lost to ...
Source: Drugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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