The Placebo Effect, Digested – 10 Amazing Findings

By Christian Jarrett The placebo effect usually triggers an eye-brow raise or two among even the most hard-nosed of skeptics. We may not be able to forecast the future or move physical objects with our minds, but the placebo effect is nearly as marvellous (Ben Goldacre once called it the “coolest, strangest thing in medicine”). The term “placebo effect” is short-hand for how our mere beliefs about the effectiveness of an inert treatment or intervention can lead to demonstrable health benefits and cognitive changes – an apparently incontrovertible demonstration of the near-magical power of mind over matter. It’s not literally magic, of course. Our beliefs are the subjective echo of physical processes in the brain – and it’s this constellation of neurochemical and electrical events , and their downstream effects, that underlies the placebo phenomenon (in some cases the placebo effect can also be interpreted as a form of conditioned response, in which a learned physiological reaction occurs in the absence of the original trigger). There is another angle to this topic. To research psychologists, the placebo effect isn’t always a phenomenon of wonder, but a methodological nuisance. Researchers must go to extreme lengths to rule out the influence of participant expectations, so as to establish which observed effects are truly attributable to an intervention. Here, in a celebration of the mysterious and maddening placeb...
Source: BPS RESEARCH DIGEST - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Feature Source Type: blogs

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Objective The aims of the study were to evaluate the influence of level of spinal cord injury (SCI) on caloric intake relative to total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and body composition, and to develop a SCI–specific correction factor for the TDEE estimation. Design Individuals with paraplegia (PARA, n = 28) and tetraplegia (TETRA, n = 13) were analyzed. Daily caloric intake, basal metabolic rate, and TDEE were obtained using dietary recall, indirect calorimetry, and prediction equations, respectively. Caloric intake and TDEE were adjusted to bodyweight. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray a...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Original Research Articles: CME Article . 2019 Series . Number 11 Source Type: research
Conclusions The results of the present study may be indicative for an impaired oxidative metabolism in work-related trapezius myalgia. However, additional research is necessary to confirm this hypothesis.
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Original Research Articles Source Type: research
This study aims to assess whether ultrasound-guided injection of platelet-rich plasma can safely and effectively treat symptoms associated with acetabular hip labral tears. Design Institutional review board approval was gained for a prospective study of eight patients (N = 8), who have previously failed conservative management, to receive ultrasound-guided injection of platelet-rich plasma at the site of hip labrum tear. We assessed pain reduction and functional ability at baseline and then 2, 6, and 8 wks after injection, using the visual analog scale and Harris Hip Score, respectively. Results Statistically signifi...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Original Research Articles Source Type: research
Introduction Ozone has been recently used as a safe alternative treatment in musculoskeletal disorders with fewer adverse effects than corticosteroids. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a single injection of ozone with that of a corticosteroid in the treatment of shoulder impingement. Design Thirty patients with shoulder pain and clinical signs and symptoms of impingement were randomly assigned into two groups: ultrasound-guided injection with ozone or corticosteroid. Patients’ symptoms were evaluated by visual analog scale, constant score, shoulder pain and disability scale, shoulder range of...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Original Research Articles Source Type: research
The aim of this project was to evaluate the 10-yr outcomes from the Rehabilitation Research Experience for Medical Students. A target benchmark was one high-quality output per student. Students were required to devise a research project and work full time with a mentor at an approved sponsor site for 8 wks. Longitudinal surveys were used to collect data about research outputs, match results, and decisions about whether to pursue academic careers. From 2008 to 2017, 73 (48%) of 153 applicants were awarded summer externships. Residency match results included the following: physical medicine and rehabilitation (45%), internal...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Education & Administration Source Type: research
Bone stress injury is a common overuse injury in athletes. Risk factors for bone stress injury in athletes include the female athlete triad (triad); this has not been evaluated in para athletes. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors, prevalence, and anatomical distribution of bone stress injury in para athletes. A cross-sectional online survey on health characteristics and previous fractures including bone stress injury was completed by para athletes training for the 2016 or 2018 Paralympic Games. Two hundred sixty para athletes completed the survey (659 invited, response rate = 40%). Half reported previous fr...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research
We describe a case of posttraumatic chronic intercostal neuralgia, in which successful pain relief was achieved via repeated injections of local anesthetic and steroid combinations in the serratus anterior plane under ultrasonographic guidance. This novel technique is easy to administer, reliable, and warrants further investigation with regard to its use for rehabilitation of patients who are experiencing posttraumatic chronic neuropathies of the chest wall.
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
ConclusionsStructural and functional changes meta-analyzed in this paper may contribute to elucidating the central pathophysiological mechanisms involved in TN/TNP. These results may be used as biomarkers to predict the response to medication and, ideally, in the future to offer personalized treatments.
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Authors: Bianchi L, Schiavina R, Borghesi M, Chessa F, Casablanca C, Angiolini A, Ercolino A, Pultrone CV, Mineo Bianchi F, Barbaresi U, Piazza P, Manferrari F, Bertaccini A, Fiorentino M, Ferro M, Porreca A, Marcelli E, Brunocilla E Abstract BACKGROUND: To develop a clinical nomogram aimed to predict the achievement of trifecta in patients treated with open, laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy (PN) for localized renal masses (
Source: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Minerva Urol Nefrol Source Type: research
No abstract available
Source: The Back Letter - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Articles Source Type: research
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