Imaging in gestational trophoblastic disease
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRIAuthor(s): Lawrence Hsu Lin, Rodrigo Polizio, Koji Fushida, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira FranciscoAbstractGestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a spectrum of disorders characterized by abnormal trophoblastic proliferation. GTD includes benign conditions such as hydatidiform moles and malignant diseases that are referred as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). Ultrasound plays a central role in the diagnosis of patients with hydatidiform mole. Other imaging modalities are useful in molar pregnancy, mainly for evaluating pulmonary complications and atypical presentation of hydatidiform mole. GTN typically arises after 20% of molar pregnancies but can uncommonly occur after nonmolar gestations. After uterine evacuation, serial human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels are evaluated in patients for early detection of GTN. Once GTN is suspected, Doppler ultrasound is the primary tool to confirm the diagnosis; however, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can also help in selected cases. Metastatic disease workup can involve various modalities, including ultrasound, X-ray, computed tomography (CT), MRI and positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT). In this article, we review the main imaging modalities used to evaluate patients with GTD.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between previous cesarean section (C/S) and risk for post-molar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). METHODS: Data from patients who were treated for hydatidiform moles between 1995 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient age, gravidity, parity, abortion history, gestational age, pretreatment beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), previous molar pregnancy, clinical symptoms, enlarged uterus, theca lutein cyst, type of GTN, World Health Organization risk score, chemotherapy, and mode of delivery were recorded. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confid...
Authors: Abu-Rustum NR, Yashar CM, Bean S, Bradley K, Campos SM, Chon HS, Chu C, Cohn D, Crispens MA, Damast S, Dorigo O, Eifel PJ, Fisher CM, Frederick P, Gaffney DK, Han E, Huh WK, Lurain JR, Mariani A, Mutch D, Nagel C, Nekhlyudov L, Fader AN, Remmenga SW, Reynolds RK, Sisodia R, Tillmanns T, Ueda S, Wyse E, McMillian NR, Scavone J Abstract Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), a subset of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), occurs when tumors develop in the cells that would normally form the placenta during pregnancy. The NCCN Guidelines for Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia provides treatment recom...
ConclusionIn this study, we observed that abnormal levels of serum hCG titers and the local presentation of lesions with varying intervals after antecedent term pregnancy were the most common presenting features of extrauterine ETT. In addition, we found that the extraction of extrauterine lesions was needed for the treatment of extrauterine ETT. Of course, the follow-up was also important.
CONCLUSION: In hydatidiform mole patients, thyroid disease severity increases with age, parity, beta-HCG level and mole size. However, prospective multicenter studies on this topic are needed, with larger numbers of patients and closer monitoring. PMID: 31411244 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
ConclusionPartial molar pregnancy with a live fetus is a very rare condition that presents a challenging diagnosis. Recognizing it is of primary importance for patient care and the placenta should always be investigated at birth, especially in a newborn with intrauterine growth restriction.
Conclusions: The awareness of the risks and complications of GTD among physicians with close follow-up is paramount. There is a need to establish a national registry of GTD cases in Oman. PMID: 31110626 [PubMed]
Authors: Kim GS, Hwang KA, Choi KC Abstract Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is an unusual disease occurring in pregnancy that originates from abnormal trophoblastic cells and comprises a group of diseases with different properties of invasion, metastasis and recurrence. The GTD group includes hydatidiform moles and gestational trophoblastic neoplasms (GTNs), with GTNs being divided into invasive moles, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumors and epithelioid trophoblastic tumors. The present review focuses on current effective treatments for GTD, including conventional and novel promising direct...
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that lung nodule alone is not an adequate indication of chemotherapy in molar pregnancy. hCG surveillance is safe for patients with lung nodule, especially with single nodule, as long as their hCG levels do not meet International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics diagnostic criteria for GTN. PMID: 30740949 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
ConclusionRoutine post-pregnancy human chorionic gonadotrophin screening may be safely discontinued in patients with one previous uncomplicated hydatidiform mole.
ConclusionThe use of ICSI should be protective against triploidy; however, the retrospective data suggests that molar pregnancy is not eliminated with the use of ART. It is pertinent to continue to record this data, through the gestational trophoblastic disease centres, in order to ensure no further increase in incidence, appropriate follow-up, and transparency in communication.