PERSPECTIVES Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder that typically affects young people during their most productive years, causing irreversible damage and accumulation of disability. Treatments over time have had modest effects at completely controlling or suppressing disease activity, but are generally aimed at controlling early dominating inflammation that, over time, accumulates damage and leads to progressive disability. Some unfortunate patients are destined to deteriorate despite even newer and more effective agents because of the inability of these drugs to fully curb the inflammatory component of the disease. These patients require something more that might be capable of halting the disease process. Using high-intensity myeloablative chemotherapeutic agents, it is now possible to completely remove the peripheral immune system and replace it anew from autologous bone marrow–derived hematopoietic stem cells, purged of disease-causing MS cells. This procedure, referred to as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), produces a new immune system that appears tolerant and no longer attacks the central nervous system (CNS).
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Multiple Sclerosis PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

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Purpose of review In this review, we summarize the recently published literature that demonstrates the efficacy and safety of autologous haematopoietic stem cell therapy (AHSCT) in multiple sclerosis (MS) and highlight the importance of supportive care required for the safe and well-tolerated delivery of AHSCT. Recent findings MS is an autoimmune inflammatory and degenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). In the majority of patients, the illness runs a relapsing remitting course (RRMS), culminating in a secondary progressive phase with gradual accumulation of fixed disabilities. Currently available dis...
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Tags: BLOOD, BONE MARROW AND LYMPHATICS: Edited by Christopher Dalley Source Type: research
Discussion MDSCs violently emerge in pathological conditions in an attempt to limit potentially harmful immune and inflammatory responses. Mechanisms supporting their expansion and survival are deeply investigated in cancer, in the perspective to reactivate specific antitumor responses and prevent their contribution to disease evolution. These findings will likely contribute to improve the targeting of MDSCs in anticancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. New evidence indicates that the expansion of myeloid cell differentiation in pathology is subject to fine-tuning, as its...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we show that calorie restriction is protective against age-related increases in senescence and microglia activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in an animal model of aging. Further, these protective effects mitigated age-related decline in neuroblast and neuronal production, and enhanced olfactory memory performance, a behavioral index of neurogenesis in the SVZ. Our results support the concept that calorie restriction might be an effective anti-aging intervention in the context of healthy brain aging. Greater Modest Activity in Late Life Correlates with Lower Incidence of Dementia ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
For more than twenty years now, Richard Burt's research teams have been working on the treatment of autoimmunity through the destruction and recreation of the immune system. Autoimmunity is a malfunction in the self-tolerance of immune cells, leading them to attack patient tissues. The malfunction is entirely contained in the immune system, so if the immune system is destroyed and replaced, the autoimmunity stops. If the genesis of autoimmunity is happenstance, an unfortunate one-time accident, then this is a cure. But if autoimmunity has a trigger outside the immune system in a given patient, it will return after some per...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that results from breakdown of immunological tolerance toward the central nervous system. The early course of MS is commonly characterized by repeated acute episodes of focal inflammation within the central nervous system causing neurologic events called relapses, characterized by the development of neurological disabilities and gadolinium-enhancing and demyelinating lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. As the acute inflammation resolves over the course of several weeks, neurologic symptoms may partially or completely resolve. Over time, these acute inflammator...
Source: JAMA - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Conclusions. HSCT is used both for children and adults in Russia. It is successful approach for refractory MS and pediatric NMO treatment. In-time HSCT can significantly improve the outcome. Late effects can be found in these patients, so it's important to find it and give adequate rehabilitation. Thus, the risk/benefit ratio of HSCT in our population of these patients are very favorable.DisclosuresNo relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 731. Clinical Autologous Transplantation: Results Source Type: research
In this study we assessed the effect of fingolimod on transplanted human induced pluripotent stem cell derived neural progenitors (hiPSC-NPs). hiPSC-NPs were labeled by green fluorescence protein (GFP) and transplanted into the corpus callosum of mice which were chronically demyelinated after cuprizone (CPZ) feedings for 10 weeks. The animals received fingolimod from 1 day prior to NPs transplantation via gavage as well as daily intraperitoneal cyclosporine A from 2 days before cell transplantation until the time of sampling. At either 7 or 21 days after NPs transplantation, the animals were sacrificed and their brains wer...
Source: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In conclusion, senescence of vascular cells promotes the development of age-related disorders, including heart failure, diabetes, and atherosclerotic diseases, while suppression of vascular cell senescence ameliorates phenotypic features of aging in various models. Recent findings have indicated that specific depletion of senescent cells reverses age-related changes. Although the biological networks contributing to maintenance of homeostasis are extremely complex, it seems reasonable to explore senolytic agents that can act on specific cellular components or tissues. Several clinical trials of senolytic agents are currentl...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
The destruction of near all immune cells followed by cell therapy to speed recreation of the immune system is a fairly harsh procedure, as the only way to clear a sufficiently high fraction of immune cells at the moment is essentially a form of chemotherapy. It is an effective treatment for autoimmune conditions, however, albeit with a significant risk of death, in line with that for many major surgeries. This makes it suitable in its current form only for more severe autoimmune disorders in which the patients tend to be younger and more robust, but with a very poor prognosis. In past years researchers have demonstrated co...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be an autoimmune disease targeting the central nervous system leading to demyelination, and axonal and neuronal damage, resulting in progressive disability. More intensive therapies such as immunodepletion with hematopoietic stem-cell rescue are being used at a time prior to patients becoming irreversibly disabled. Over the last 15 years, there has been a shift away from using autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplants (aHSCT) to treat patients with progressive MS, towards treating those with active inflammation and relapses. There is an increasing body of evidence that aHS...
Source: Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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