Typhoid vaccine may protect against other infections

(University of Liverpool) New research by the University of Liverpool and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine shows that vaccination with weakened strains of Salmonella may also protect against other infections.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

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Abstract Salmonella typhi is a causative organism for typhoid fever. Free Vi capsular polysaccharide (Vi) is licensed for use as vaccine for typhoid fever in individuals 2 years of age and older, which has limited memory response. There is dire need of protein or peptide as conjugate partner with Vi polysaccharide to improve shortcomings of Vi vaccine. Prediction of immunogenic peptide was deduced by program T sites. Carbodiimide mediated conjugation of Vi polysaccharide with OmpCp was performed utilizing ADH as linker. Immune response of Vi-conjugates along with control group was tested in mice. Ig and IgG antibo...
Source: Biologicals : Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Biologicals Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Leonie JT. Balter, Jos A. Bosch, Sarah Aldred, Mark T. Drayson, Jet JCS. Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Suzanne Higgs, Jane E. Raymond, Ali MazaheriAbstractIllness is often accompanied by perceived cognitive sluggishness, a symptom that may stem from immune system activation. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) to assess how inflammation affected three different distinct attentional processes: alerting, orienting and executive control. In a double-blinded placebo-controlled within-subjects design (20 healthy males, mean age = 24.5, S...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 August 2019Source: Microbiological ResearchAuthor(s): Diana Pradhan, Vidya Devi NegiAbstractMicroorganisms are able to adapt to multiple adverse environmental conditions that facilitate their survival. These microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi, and protozoans are exposed to different abiotic and biotic challenges throughout their life. Adaptations help these organisms to overcome the challenges and evolve as successful pathogens which at the same time might lead to severe disease outcome. The intracellular gram-negative pathogen Salmonella, the causative agent of t...
Source: Microbiological Research - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract Enteric fever is a major public health concern in endemic areas, particularly in infrastructure-limited countries where Salmonella Paratyphi A has emerged in increasing proportion of cases. We aimed to evaluate a method to detect Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) and Salmonella Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi) in febrile patients in Bangladesh. We conducted a prospective study enrolling patients with fever> 38°C admitted to two large urban hospitals and two outpatient clinics located in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We developed and evaluated a method combining short culture with a new molecular assay to simultaneously d...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
In this study, we found that the PPL length of Korean SG isolates varied from 11 to 21 prolines and was longer than that of a live vaccine strain, SG 9R (9 prolines). According to growth competition in chickens, the growth of an SG isolate with a PPL length of 17 prolines exceeded that of an SG isolate with a PPL length of 15 prolines. We investigated the pseudogenes of the field isolates, SG 9R and reference strains in GenBank by resequencing and comparative genomics. The pseudogene profiles of the field isolates were notably different from those of the foreign SG strains, and they were subdivided into 7 pseudogene subgro...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Conclusions/SignificanceOur comparative proteome analysis indicated differences in the expression of surface proteins betweenSalmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A, and in pathogenesis-related proteins between Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Our findings may guide future development of novel diagnostics and vaccines, as well as understanding of disease progression.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Early trials of killed, whole-cell typhoid vaccine indicated a paradoxical, positive effect on malaria infections. British soldiers in India in 1898 reported> 90% decrease in malaria recurrences after receiving an investigational typhoid vaccine despite no intention or expectation to observe such an outcome. In the 1940s, multiple doses of intravenous typhoid vaccine appeared to control parasitemia and limit reinfection in three syphilis patients purposefully infected with Plasmodium vivax. Several modern vaccines (against human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, and malaria) use a detoxified lipid A d...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
In animal models, acute inflammation elicits behaviors related to psychiatric symptoms, including exaggerated threat sensitivity. Less is known about the effects of acute inflammation on the brain and behavior in humans. The polysaccharide form of the Salmonella Typhi vaccine elicits an acute inflammatory response and may provide a useful tool for clinical psychiatry research. Here, we examined the effects of typhoid vaccine on immune cells, cytokines, and attentional bias towards threat.
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
This study was undertaken to compare the expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in chickens generated by different vaccine formulations. Eighty day-old Lohmann layer chicks were divided into four groups of twenty birds each for the experiment. This comprised a non-vaccinated negative control group (NEG), a group vaccinated with the live 9R vaccine by the injection route (SC), a group vaccinated with alginate-coated chitosan microparticles encapsulating live plasmid-cured S. Gallinarum strain 9 (PC) by the oral route and a group vaccinated with a weak attenuated live S. Gallinarum strain 9 encapsulated in alginate-coa...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Abstract Typhoid fever, caused by the pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a serious global health concern. Challenge studies with wild type S. Typhi identified associations between gut-homing regulatory T cells (Treg) and development of typhoid disease. Whether oral live-attenuated Ty21a vaccination induces gut-homing Treg remains unclear. Here, we analyze pediatric and adult Treg pre- and post-Ty21a vaccination in an autologous S. Typhi-antigen presentation model to address this knowledge gap. We show that peripheral memory Treg populations change from childhood to adulthood, but not followi...
Source: Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Clin Immunol Source Type: research
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