Virulence factors, prevalence and potential transmission of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from different sources: recent reports

AbstractExtraintestinal pathogenicE.coli (ExPEC) are facultative pathogens that are part of the normal human intestinal flora. The ExPEC group includes uropathogenicE. coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitisE. coli (NMEC), sepsis-associatedE. coli (SEPEC), and avian pathogenicE. coli (APEC). Virulence factors (VF) related to the pathogenicity of ExPEC are numerous and have a wide range of activities, from those related to bacteria colonization to those related to virulence, including adhesins, toxins, iron acquisition factors, lipopolysaccharides, polysaccharide capsules, and invasins, which are usually encoded on pathogenicity islands (PAIs), plasmids and other mobile genetic elements. Mechanisms underlying the dynamics of ExPEC transmission and the selection of virulent clones are still poorly understood and require further research. The time shift between colonization of ExPEC and the development of infection remains problematic in the context of establishing the relation between consumption of contaminated food and the appearance of first disease symptoms. What appears to be most difficult is to prove that ExPEC strains cause disease symptoms and to examine the mechanism of transition from the asymptomatic colonization of the intestines to the spreading of the bacteria outside the digestive system. A significant problem for researchers who are trying to ascribe ExPEC transmission to food, people or the environment is to draw the distinction between colonization of ExPEC and infe...
Source: Gut Pathogens - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Research in Veterinary ScienceAuthor(s): Xiangjun Song, Manman Hou, Jian Tu, Mei Xue, Ying Shao, Huyan Jiang, Hongmei Liu, Ting Xue, Guijun Wang, Kezong QiAbstractMutation of the PhoP/Q two-component system decreases the expression of ybjX and pagP encoding outer membrane proteins, and mutation of ybjX or pagP attenuates avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) pathogenicity. However, whether ybjX/pagP mutation (double-deletion mutant) has a synergistic effect on pathogenicity remains unknown. Herein, electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) experiments showed that ...
Source: Research in Veterinary Science - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Abstract One of the most significant challenges of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) research is to understand how alterations in the symbiotic relationship between the genetic composition of the host and the intestinal microbiota, under impact of specific environmental factors, lead to chronic intestinal inflammation. Genome-wide association studies, followed by functional studies, have identified a role for numerous autophagy genes in IBD, especially in Crohn disease. Studies using in vitro and in vivo models, in addition to human clinical studies have revealed that autophagy is pivotal for intestinal homeostasis...
Source: Autophagy - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Autophagy Source Type: research
Conclusion: Results showed that the IgY-abrin immunotoxin had cytotoxic activity against CD133+ MGSCs and provides a novel approach for the immunotherapy of glioblastoma. PMID: 31275378 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: Research in Veterinary ScienceAuthor(s): Reza Hoseini Shahidi, Gholamreza Hashemi Tabar, Mohammad Reza Bassami, Abdollah Jamshidi, Hesam DehghaniAbstractAn Escherichia coli (E. coli) O2:K1 bacterial ghost was produced by controlled expression of bacteriophage PhiX 174 lysis gene E. Temperature controlled expression of this gene caused tunnels and holes in the cell wall of E. coli O2:K1 bacterium, leading to loss of cytoplasmic contents. Formation of E. coli O2:K1 ghost was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and determination of colony forming units. To evaluate t...
Source: Research in Veterinary Science - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Systemic infections caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are economically devastating to poultry industries worldwide and are also potentially threatening to human health. Pathogens must be able to ...
Source: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is the principle cause of colibacillosis affecting poultry. The main challenge to the poultry industry is antimicrobial resistance and the emergence of multidrug resistant...
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
In this study, the full-length cDNAs of cat BAFF (cBAFF) and BAFF-R (cBAFF-R) were amplified from the spleen by reverse transcription PCR. The open reading frame of cBAFF cDNA encodes a protein of 285 amino acids containing a predicted transmembrane domain and a furin protease cleavage site, similar to mammalian, avian, and reptile BAFFs. The cBAFF-R gene encodes a 189 amino acid protein. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed that the two genes are predominantly expressed in the spleen. csBAFF, EGFP/csBAFF, and cBAFF-R were efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), as confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-...
Source: Molecular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we identified that APECacs-yjcH-actP operon, encoding acetate assimilation system, presented the host-induced transcription during its proliferation in macrophages. Our result showed that this acetate assimilation system acted as a novel intracellular survival factor to promote APEC replication within macrophages. Furthermore, deletion ofacs-yjcH-actP operon in APEC decreased its cytotoxic level to macrophages. qRT-PCR results showed that the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12β, and TNF-α) and iNOS in FY26∆acs-yjcH-actP infected macrophages were obviously do...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In this study, β2∗ nAChR-containing receptors and lynx1 were identified using pull down studies from the mouse brain (Nissen et al., 2018), while ws-lynx1, SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 has been successfully mixed with human brain tissue to pull down multiple nAChR subtypes (Lyukmanova et al., 2016a,b; Thomsen et al., 2016). To support the in vivo interaction studies, a lynx1KO phenotype was ameliorated by crossing these mice into mutant mice null for α7 and β2 nAChR genes (Miwa et al., 2006). These in vivo studies provide an important biological context for the interactions observed within in vitro systems. ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Baicalin alleviated APEC-induced acute lung injury in chicken by inhibiting NF-κB pathway activation. Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Apr 26;72:467-472 Authors: Peng LY, Yuan M, Song K, Yu JL, Li JH, Huang JN, Yi PF, Fu BD, Shen HQ Abstract Bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of death in the animal husbandry. Acute lung injury (ALI), most often seen as a part of systemic inflammatory process, characterized by progressive hypoxemia, edema, and neutrophil accumulation in the lung. Baicalin has been reported to inhibit inflammatory response, but its role in ALI remains unknown. The purpose of our stud...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research
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