Earlier Oseltamivir May Cut Death Risk in Influenza A/H3N2 (CME/CE)

(MedPage Today) -- No effect on mortality was observed for H1N1 and influenza B patients
Source: MedPage Today Primary Care - Category: Primary Care Source Type: news

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The complement system is an ancient innate immune defense mechanism that can recognize molecular patterns on the invading pathogens. Factor H, as an inhibitor of the alternative pathway, down-regulates complement activation on the host cell surface. Locally synthesized factor H at the site of infection/injury, including lungs, can act as a pattern recognition molecule without involving complement activation. Here, we report that factor H, a sialic acid binder, interacts with influenza A virus (IAV) and modulates IAV entry, as evident from down-regulation of matrix protein 1 (M1) in H1N1 subtype-infected cells and up-regula...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the level of antibodies against hemagglutinin of influenza viruses in the sera of people in the seven age groups in the epidemic season 2018/2019 in Poland. The level of anti-hemagglutinin antibodies was determined by hemagglutination inhibition test (HAI). 1050 clinical samples from all over the country were tested. The level of antibodies against influenza viruses was highest in the 10-14 age group for A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016 (H3N2) and B/Phuket/3073/2013 Yamagata lineage antigens. These results confirm the circulation of four antigenically different influe...
Source: Acta Biochim Pol - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Acta Biochim Pol Source Type: research
The constantly changing pattern in the dominance of viral strains and their evolving subclades during the seasons substantially influences influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE). In order to further substantiate the importance of detailed data of genetic virus characterization for IVE estimates during the seasons, we performed influenza virus type and subtype specific IVE estimates. IVE estimates were assessed using a test-negative case-control design, in the context of the intraseasonal changes of the heterogeneous mix of circulating influenza virus strains for three influenza seasons (2016/17 to 2018/19) in Austria. Adjus...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Most licensed seasonal influenza vaccines are non-adjuvanted and rely primarily on vaccine-induced antibody titers for protection. As such, seasonal antigenic drift and suboptimal vaccine strain selection often results in reduced vaccine efficacy. Further, seasonal H3N2 influenza vaccines demonstrate poor efficacy compared to H1N1 and influenza type B vaccines. New vaccines, adjuvants, or delivery technologies that can induce broader or cross-seasonal protection against drifted influenza virus strains, likely through induction of protective T cell responses, are urgently needed. Here, we report novel lipidated TLR7/8 ligan...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, 15 H1N1, one H1N2, and four H3N2 strains were isolated from a total of 4080 nasal swabs which were collected from 20 pig farms in three provinces in China between 2016 and 2019. All the isolates were clustered into four genotypes. A new genotype represented by the H1N2 strain was found, whose fragments came from the triple reassortant H1N2 lineage, classical swine influenza virus (cs-H1N1) lineage, and 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus lineage. A/Sw/HB/HG394/2018(H1N1), which was clustered into the cs-H1N1 lineage, showed a close relationship with the 1918 pandemic virus. Mutations determining the host range specific...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
We report here on a series of benzo[d]thiazole and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]thiazole derivatives with robust and selective activities against influenza A (H1N1, H3N2) and influenza B viruses. Two compounds, 1 and 4, have low micromolar EC50 values and show high binding affinities for Hsp90, which suggests that inhibition of Hsp90 is the mechanism underlying their antiviral effects. These compounds represent suitable scaffolds for designing novel Hsp90 inhibitors with favourable activities against influenza virus. PMID: 32171985 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Bioorganic Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Bioorg Chem Source Type: research
This study suggests that chronic arsenite exposure could result in enhanced influenza infection in epithelial cells, and that this may be mediated through increased sialic acid binding. Finally, the decreased effectiveness of the anti‐influenza drug, oseltamivir, in arsenite‐exposed cells raises substantial public health concerns if this effect translates to arsenic‐exposed, influenza‐infected people.
Source: Journal of Applied Toxicology - Category: Toxicology Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Current influenza vaccines only confer protection against homologous viruses. We synthesized pulmonary surfactant (PS)–biomimetic liposomes encapsulating 2',3'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP), an agonist of the interferon gene inducer STING (stimulator of interferon genes). The adjuvant (PS-GAMP) vigorously augmented influenza vaccine–induced humoral and CD8+ T cell immune responses in mice by simulating the early phase of viral infection without concomitant excess inflammation. Two days after intranasal immunization with PS-GAMP–adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine, strong cross-p...
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Immunology, Microbiology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
In this study, we show that OA-10, a newly synthesized triterpene out of 11 oleanane-type derivatives, exhibited significant antiviral activity against four different subtypes of IAV (H1N1, H5N1, H9N2 and H3N2) replications in A549 cell cultures with EC50 ranging from 6.7 to 19.6 μM and a negligible cytotoxicity (CC50 > 640 μM). It inhibited acid-induced hemolysis in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 26 µM, and had a weak inhibition on the adsorption of H5 HA to chicken erythrocytes at higher concentrations (≥40 µM). Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis showed that...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In this study, we developed a CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dot (QD) fluorescent dye for rapid and sensitive detection of two common subtypes (H1N1 and H3N2) of influenza A virus, and examined its utility. CdSe/CdS/ZnS QD was conjugated with antibody (Ab) after conjugation with latex, making QD conjugate of QD + Latex + Ab. A stable photoluminescence of QD conjugate and advantage of CdSe/CdS/ZnS QD used was characterized in this study. The performance of a rapid fluorescent immunochromatographic test (FICT) employing QD conjugate (QD-FICT) in detecting influenza A/H1N1 was 8-fold and 64-fold higher than that of ...
Source: Biosensors and Bioelectronics - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
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