Genetic and antigenic heterogeneity of infectious bronchitis virus in South America: implications for control programs.

Genetic and antigenic heterogeneity of infectious bronchitis virus in South America: implications for control programs. Avian Pathol. 2019 Feb 14;:1-28 Authors: Marandino A, Vagnozzi A, Craig MI, Tomás G, Techera C, Panzera Y, Vera F, Pérez R Abstract Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a persistent sanitary problem for the South American poultry industry despite extensive vaccination. The IBV single-stranded RNA genome has high rates of mutation and recombination that generate a notorious virus variability. Since most IBV vaccines are type-specific, there is a need for a constant surveillance of the circulating lineages and knowledge about their genetic and antigenic properties. Here we present an integrative analysis that provides the pattern of genetic variation of the South American IBV strains and information about their antigenic characteristics. The genetic analysis was performed using the S1 complete coding sequences of all available South American strains, including newly obtained Argentine and Uruguayan field samples. Our phylogenetic and phylodynamic analyses evidence that three main lineages (GI-1, GI-11 and GI-16) are extensively circulating in South American flocks. Strains of the GI-1 lineage (Massachusetts-type) were detected in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Colombia. The GI-11 lineage is an exclusive South American lineage that emerged in the 1950s, being at present the predominant lineage in Brazil and Uruguay. The GI-16 e...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

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This study reports on the simultaneous administration of live NDV or aMPV subtype B vaccines alongside two live IBV (Massachusetts-H120 and 793B-CR88) vaccines in day-old maternal-antibody positive commercial broiler chicks. In the first experiment, chicks were divided into four groups; one unvaccinated and three groups vaccinated with live NDV VG/GA-Avinew, live H120 + CR88, or VG/GA-Avinew + H120 + CR88. In the second experiment, live aMPV subtype B vaccine was used in place of NDV. Clinical signs were monitored daily and oropharyngeal swabs were taken at regular intervals for vaccine virus detection. Blood w...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
In conclusion, the IBVs circulating in southern China over the past decade have experienced a remarkable change in genetic diversity, dominant genotypes, and selection pressure, indicating the importance of permanent monitoring of circulating strains and the urgency for developing new vaccines to counteract the emerging LX4-type and New-type IBVs.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
ez MF Abstract Since the emergence of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses in Morocco in 2016, severe respiratory problems have been encountered in the field. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is often detected together with H9N2, suggesting disease exacerbation in cases of co-infections. This hypothesis was therefore tested and confirmed in laboratory conditions using specific pathogen free chickens. Most common field vaccine programs were then tested to compare their efficacies against these two co-infecting agents. IBV γCoV/chicken/Morocco/I38/2014 (Mor-IT02) and LPAI virus A/chicken/Morocco...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
In this study, 62.24% of 572 organ pools from the 5 regions of Brazil tested positive in a 3′UTR screening, and 84.83% were typed as BR-I IBV. BR-I was detected in the respiratory, digestive and urogenital tracts in pooled samples from all Brazilian geographical regions and in all the breeding systems analyzed. Specificity and sensitivity tests as well as phylogenetic analysis successfully confirmed the expected clustering of the sequences detected by this assay with the BR-I (GI-11) group. The nested PCR described in this study represents a suitable and valuable tool in the diagnosis, epidemiology, monitoring and va...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Probes - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
In conclusion, co-infection of chicks with AIV and IBV, simultaneously or sequentially, affected the clinical signs, the virus replication dynamics as well as the internal organ integrity. The results proposed that infection with heterologous virus may result in temporary competition for cell receptors or competent cells for replication, most likely interferon-mediated. PMID: 31300117 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research
Abstract The coronavirus avian Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) poses economic threats to poultry farms worldwide, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. To define the evolution of recent IBVs in Iran, a genetic analysis based on hypervariable nucleotide sequences of S1 gene was carried out. Tracheal swab samples were collected from 170 Broiler flocks during 2017. Ten tracheal swabs from each flock pooled. From a total number of 170 flocks tested, 84.71% found to be positive. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed the presence of D274 as a first time in Iran. IS/1494/06 was showed to be do...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research
In conclusion, co-infection of chicks with AIV and IBV, simultaneously or sequentially, affected the clinical signs, the virus replication dynamics as well as the internal organ integrity. The results proposed that infection with heterologous virus may result in temporary competition for cell receptors or competent cells for replication, most likely interferon-mediated.
Source: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
CP Abstract In backyard farms of Lao People's Democratic Republic, mixed-species rearing of poultry is a breeding-ground for cross-species transmission. Here, the epidemiology of viruses circulating among backyard poultry in Vientiane Province was assessed to guide future control strategies. Oral/tracheal and cloacal swabs, collected from 605 poultry (308 ducks, 297 chickens) between 2011 and 2015, were screened by PCR for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Coronavirus (CoV) and Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV). Chicken sera were screened for anti-NDV antibodies by ELISA. Statistical and phylogenetic analyses revealed tran...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Abstract Avian virus infection remains one of the most important threats to the poultry industry. Pathogens such as avian influenza virus (AIV), avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) are normally controlled by antibodies specific for surface proteins and cellular immune responses. However, standard vaccines aimed at inducing neutralizing antibodies must be administered annually and can be rendered ineffective because immune-selective pressure results in the continuous mutation of viral surface proteins of different strains circulating from year to year. Chicken T cells...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 May 2019Source: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Arash Ghalyanchilangeroudi, Hossein Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Fallah Mehrabadi, Seyed Ali Ghafouri, Amir Modiri Hamdan, Zahra Ziafati, Reza Esmaealzadehdizaji, Peyman MohammadiAbstractThe coronavirus avian Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) poses economic threats to poultry farms worldwide, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. To define the evolution of recent IBVs in Iran, a genetic analysis based on hypervariable nucleotide sequences of S1 gene was carried out. Tracheal...
Source: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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