Antiaflatoxigenic effects of selected antifungal peptides

Publication date: Available online 15 February 2019Source: PeptidesAuthor(s): Manju S Devi, RB. SashidharAbstractAflatoxins are potent carcinogenic mycotoxins produced as secondary metabolites mainly by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Control measures to curtail the contamination of aflatoxin in food products is still a challenge. Although there are several reports on the antifungal peptides, there is no specific study on the action of antifungal peptides on aflatoxin synthesis. This work details the effect of four antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) - PPD1 (FRLHF), 66-10 (FRLKFH), 77-3 (FRLKFHF) and D4E1 (FKLRAKIKVRLRAKIKL) on the aflatoxin production by A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Results of the investigations suggests that AMPs at near minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were effectively inhibiting aflatoxins, without hindering the growth of the fungi. These AMPs, at concentrations near MIC, induced membrane permeabilisation, without inducing cellular leakage. The involvement of oxidative stress for the aflatoxin synthesis was reversed by the antioxidant nature of the peptides as evidenced by the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay, reactive oxygen species production, malondialdehyde and antioxidant enzymes analysis. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis of the aflatoxin gene cluster showed that ‘aflR’ and its downstream genes expre...
Source: Peptides - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

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A 78-year-old female diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome excess blasts-2 ten months ago was admitted to our hospital due to fever and a tender, 3-cm purple-red infiltrative erythema on her right lower leg. This single lesion evolved into multiple lesions with a sporotrichoid pattern over four days (Fig. 1a). Laboratory data revealed white blood cell count of 400/ μL. A computed tomography scan revealed a halo sign in the upper lobe of her right lung (Fig. 1b). Biopsies of the lung and lower leg were performed, and the histological examination showed mycelium of Aspergillus species (Fig.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Medical Imagery Source Type: research
We report an unusual case of a patient with persistent cough and dyspnoea in the context of prior chemoradiotherapy for primary lung cancer who was subsequently found to have invasive tracheobronchial aspergillosis of the distal trachea and proximal of right main bronchus. Invasive tracheobronchial aspergillosis is a rare disease with most reported cases in the literature occurring in immunocompromised hosts. We report an unusual case of a patient with persistent cough and dyspnoea in the context of prior chemoradiotherapy for primary lung cancer. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an abnormal soft tissue mass sur...
Source: Respirology Case Reports - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Protein Expression and PurificationAuthor(s): Kazi Muhammad Rezaul Karim, Ahmad Husaini, Ngieng Ngui Sing, Tasmia Tasnim, Fazia Mohd Sinang, Hasnain Hussain, Md Anowar Hossain, Hairul RoslanAbstractA pH and thermostable glucoamylase encoding gene having starch-binding domain (SBD) from Aspergillus flavus NSH9 was successfully identified, isolated, and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 to produce recombinant glucoamylase (rGA2). The full-length glucoamylase gene (2039 bp) and cDNA (1839 bp) isolated was found to encode for 612 amino acid residues in the open reading fr...
Source: Protein Expression and Purification - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
In this study, we showed that Aspergillus sydowii strain PA F-2 isolated from soil contaminated with heavy metal and pesticides can simultaneously degrade trichlorfon (TCF) and adsorb Cd(II) from mineral salt medium. The maximum removal rates for TCF and Cd(II) were 55.52% and 57.90%, respectively, in the treatment containing 100 mg L-1 TCF and 2 mg L-1 Cd(II). As the initial Cd(II) concentration increased (2, 5, and 10 mg L-1), the PA F-2 biomass, TCF degradation rate, and Cd(II) adsorption efficiency decreased, whereas the Cd(II) adsorption capacity by PA F-2 increased. The addition of exogenous glucose and sucrose signi...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research
This article describes a new three-step biorefinery process for the complete fractionation of brewery spent grain (BSG). First, BSG was assessed as a substrate for the production of enzymatic cocktails, mainly xylanases, through solid-state fermentation with Aspergillus brasiliensis. Second, the spent solid residue (SSR) recovered was delignified with cholinium glycinate ionic liquid, reducing the Klason lignin by 75.26% and the soluble lignin by 62.92%. In addition, scanning electron microscopy of the carbohydrate-rich material (CRM) showed some microfibrils and pores, which facilitated the diffusion of enzymes. Third, a...
Source: Process Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Controlling aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus (Af) and aflatoxins in grains and food during storage are great challenge to humans worldwide. Alcaligenes faecalis N1-4 isolated from tea rhizosphere soil can produce abundant antifungal volatiles, and greatly inhibited the growth of Af in un-contacted face-to-face dual culture tests. Gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry revealed that dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and methyl isovalerate (MI) were two abundant compounds in the volatile profiles of N1-4. DMDS with the highest relative abundance (69.90%, to the total peak area) in N1-4 volatiles eventually prevented the conidia...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2019Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): An-Dong Gong, Fei-Yan Dong, Meng-Jun Hu, Xian-Wei Kong, Fen-Fen Wei, Shuang-Jun Gong, Yi-Mei Zhang, Jing-Bo Zhang, Ai-Bo Wu, Yu-Cai LiaoAbstractThe contamination of food with Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxins is considered as one of the most severe safety problems in the world. The application of microorganisms and the produced bio-active compounds is considered as the most promising method for controlling foodborne pathogens and mycotoxins contamination both in pre- and post-harvest. Vt-7, identified as Enterobacter asburiae, was able...
Source: Food Control - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
This article develops a three-steps biorefining process for the complete fractionation of brewery spent grain (BSG). First, BSG was used as substrate for solid-state fermentations in horizontal drum bioreactors with different amounts of Aspergillus brasiliensis to produce enzymatic cocktails, mainly xylanases. Second, the spent solid residue recovered under the lower inoculum concentration was treated with the cholinium glycinate ionic liquids (ILs) to obtain a carbohydrate-rich material with lower lignin content. Pretreatment with ILs has been postulated to improve the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomas...
Source: Process Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
ConclusionsTo our knowledge, this is the first report of spondylodiscitis caused byAspergillus terreus after an abdominal penetrating injury. The histological finding of chronic suppurative osteomyelitis and the radiological findings strongly suggested direct inoculation ofAspergillus terreus.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 May 2019Source: Materials Chemistry and PhysicsAuthor(s): Alejandro Erazo, Silvio Andrés Mosquera, J.E. Rodríguez-PaézAbstractZinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using acetic acid and ethylene glycol as solvents. Their characteristics were determined using IR and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron and scanning microscopies. Each solvent was found to produce ZnO nanoparticles with a different morphology and not monodispersed: the acetic acid solvent (with a heat treatment at 400 °C) gave acicular (with a size of &...
Source: Materials Chemistry and Physics - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
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