Mitochondrial Function in Astrocytes Is Essential for Normal Emergence from Anesthesia in Mice

Editor ’s PerspectiveWhat We Already Know about This TopicIn mice, restriction of loss of the mitochondrial complex I geneNdufs4 to glutamatergic neurons confers a profound hypersensitivity to volatile anesthetics.Astrocytes are crucial to glutamatergic synapse functioning during excitatory transmission.What This Article Tells Us That Is NewIn a tamoxifen-activated astrocyte-specificNdufs4(KO) mouse, the induction EC50s for tail clamp in both isoflurane and halothane were similar between the control and astrocyte-specificNdufs4(KO) mice at 3 weeks after 4-hydroxy tamoxifen injection. However, the emergent concentrations in both anesthetics for the astrocyte-specificNdufs4(KO) mice were half that of the controls.Similarly, the induction EC50s for loss of righting reflex were similar between the control and astrocyte-specificNdufs4(KO) mice; concentrations for regain of righting reflex in both anesthetics for the astrocyte-specificNdufs4(KO) mice were much less than the control.Thus, mitochondrial complex I function within astrocytes is essential for normal emergence from anesthesia.Background In mice, restriction of loss of the mitochondrial complex I geneNdufs4 to glutamatergic neurons confers a profound hypersensitivity to volatile anesthetics similar to that seen with global genetic knockout ofNdufs4. Astrocytes are crucial to glutamatergic synapse functioning during excitatory transmission. Therefore, the authors examined the role of astrocytes in the anesthetic hype...
Source: Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

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Abstract Background: Aberrant afferent signaling drives adverse remodeling of the cardiac nervous system in ischemic heart disease. The study objective was to determine whether thoracic spinal dorsal column stimulation (SCS) modulates cardiac afferent sensory transduction of the ischemic ventricle. Methods: In anesthetized canines (n=16), extracellular activity generated by 62 dorsal root ganglia soma (T1-T3), with verified myocardial ischemic (MI) sensitivity, were evaluated with and without 20 min pre-emptive SCS (T1-T3 spinal level; 50 Hz, 90% motor threshold). Transient MI was induced by 1 min coronary artery ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol Source Type: research
Conclusions The authors conclude that sympathetic blocks may be therapeutic in patients with complex regional pain syndrome regardless of preprocedure limb temperatures. The effects of sympathetic blocks do not predict the success of spinal cord stimulation.
Source: Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Anaesthesia &Intensive Care MedicineAuthor(s): Anu Kansal, John HughesAbstractPain is one of the most common symptoms that patient presents with. Visceral organs were thought to be insensitive to pain in the past, but we now know this is not true. It is more common than somatic pain and originates from the internal organs in the thorax, abdomen or pelvis. These organs are innervated by the parasympathetic (vagus and sacral parasympathetic fibres) and sympathetic (thoracolumbar sympathetic chain: T1–L2) nervous systems. The afferent and efferent fibres to...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: Journal of Critical CareAuthor(s): M.-H. Ho Anthony, Glenio B. MizubutiAbstractProphylactic administration of a vasopressor to mitigate the hypotensive effect of propofol (and/or other co-induction agents) during sedation/anesthesia immediately prior to tracheal intubation in frail patients in the intensive care unit and emergency and operating rooms appears to be not an uncommon practice. We submit that this practice is unnecessary and potentially harmful. Despite restoring the blood pressure, phenylephrine, for instance, may have an additive or synergistic effec...
Source: Journal of Critical Care - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
AN INCREASING number of patients are receiving cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), and many undergo surgical procedures.1 Surgical procedures involving the carotid artery, while not associated with major fluid shifts, may be associated with hemodynamic instability resulting from the activation of the baroreceptor reflexes, leading to hypotension and bradycardia. Elderly patients are specifically prone to severe hemodynamic perturbations resulting from the activation of the baroreceptor reflex owing to inherent reduction in the stimulation of beta-receptors and replacement fibrosis of their conduction system.
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Conclusion: Dietary capsaicin may alleviate 2K1C renovascular hypertension, probably via enhancing phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. Abbreviations: 2K1C: 2-kidney, 1-clip hypertension model; Akt: protein kinase B; Ang II: angiotensin II; ANOVA: measures analysis of variance; BP: blood pressure; EC: endothelial cell; eNOS: endothelial nitric oxide synthase; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; L-NAME, LN: Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride; MA: mesenteric arteries; MAP: mean arterial blood pressure; NO: nitric oxide; PKA: protein kinase A; PVDF: polyvinylidene difluoride; SBP: Systolic blood pre...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Clin Exp Hypertens Source Type: research
Abstract Chemoreflex neurocircuitry includes the PVN, but the role of PVN efferent projections to specific cardiorespiratory nuclei is unclear. We hypothesized the PVN contributes to cardiorespiratory responses to hypoxia via projections to the nTS. Rats received bilateral PVN microinjections of AAV expressing inhibitory DREADD (GiDREADD) or GFP control. Efficacy of GiDREADD inhibition by the DREADD agonist Compound 21 (C21) was verified in PVN slices; C21 reduced evoked action potential discharge by reducing excitability to injected current in GiDREADD-expressing PVN neurons. We evaluated hypoxic ventilatory resp...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
Background: Portable automated infrared pupillometry is becoming increasingly popular. To generate an objective reference base, the Neurological Pupil index (NPi) which combines different values of the pupillary light reflex is being introduced into clinical practice. In this explorative study, we examined different aspects of the NPi in relation to clinical severity and outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Materials and Methods: Patients with serial assessment of the NPi (NeurOptics pupillometer NPi-200, Irvine, CA) starting no later than day 2 after aSAH onset were included in the stud...
Source: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research
Muscular dystrophy (MD) refers to a group of hereditary diseases characterized by painless degeneration and loss-of-function of skeletal muscles. Out of these, the X-linked recessive types such as Duchenne (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophies (BMD) remain the most common subtypes. Both DMD and BMD result from a deficiency of the muscle-stabilizing protein dystrophin, whose expression is either completely lost (as in DMD) or dysfunctional (as in BMD). This, in turn, results in weakness and motor delay that eventually proves to be fatal from respiratory failure.
Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
In conclusion, the management of acute postoperative pain in patients with cancer can be challenging.
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Anaesthesiology - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
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