Volumetric and Surface Characteristics of Gray Matter in Adult Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

In this study, we used a unique design including adults with dyslexia, dyscalculia, both disorders and controls, to explore differences in gray matter characteristics across groups. Specifically, we examined whether dyslexia, dyscalculia, or their comorbid manifestation could be related to volumetric and surface characteristics of gray matter, using voxel-based and surface-based morphometry. We demonstrate with Bayesian analyses that the present data favor the null model of no differences between groups across the brain, a result that is in line with recent findings in this field of research. Importantly, we provide detailed statistical maps to enable robust assessment of our findings, and to promote cumulative evaluation of the evidence. Together, these findings suggest that gray matter differences associated with dyslexia and dyscalculia might not be as reliable as suggested by previous literature, with important implications for our understanding of these disorders.
Source: Neuropsychologia - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Condition:   Dyslexia Intervention:   Device: Transcranial alternating current stimulation Sponsors:   University of Geneva, Switzerland;   Wyss Center for Bio and Neuroengineering Completed
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
We examined both within- and between-network functional connectivity of these four networks in 26 8–12-year-old children with dyslexia and 30 age-matched typical readers using resting-state functional MRI. Fluency and nonfluency behavioral reading measures were collected, and the scores were analyzed together with the functional data. Children with reading difficulties did not differ in functional connectivity for the four networks compared to typical readers. Grouping the entire cohort into low vs. high fluency-level reading groups, however, revealed significantly higher functional connectivity values within the cin...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 February 2020Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Hiroki Higuchi, Sunao Iwaki, Akira UnoAbstractMany studies have confirmed a brain dysfunction in people with developmental dyslexia (DD) in certain brain regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus and the left fusiform gyrus. However, the neurobiological substrates in Japanese-speaking people with dyslexia are not fully understood, mostly due to the uniqueness of the orthographic systems. Since a substantial part of the written Japanese includes the logographic Kanji as well as the phonographic Kana systems, the reading disab...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2020Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Ulrike Kuhl, Nicole E. Neef, Indra Kraft, Gesa Schaadt, Liane Dörr, Jens Brauer, Ivonne Czepezauer, Bent Müller, Arndt Wilcke, Holger Kirsten, Frank Emmrich, Johannes Boltze, Angela D. Friederici, Michael A. SkeideAbstractDevelopmental dyslexia, a severe deficit in literacy learning, is a neurodevelopmental learning disorder. Yet, it is not clear whether existing neurobiological accounts of dyslexia capture potential predispositions of the deficit or consequences of reduced reading experience. Here, we longitudinally followed 32 child...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Abstract Developmental dyslexia is defined as a specific reading disorder but is also thought to be underpinned by a deficit in motor skills that may well affect handwriting performance. However, the results of studies addressing this issue are not consistent. The present study was, therefore, designed to better understand the functioning of handwriting in children with dyslexia, by conducting an analysis of the legibility and fluency of handwritten letters, supplemented by an assessment of motor skills. The performances of 15 children with dyslexia (Mage = 11.4 years) were compared with those of two groups of typ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - Category: Disability Authors: Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research
We examined the cognitive skill profiles of 352 college students (ages 18-35 years), using standardized and research-validated measures of reading, spoken language, nonverbal cognition, and self-reported childhood diagnostic history. We classified college students as having DLD (n = 50), and/or DD (n = 40), or as typically developed adults (n = 132) according to procedures described for adults with DLD and DD. A structural equation model determined the cognitive, language, and reading measures predicted by the classification group. Adults with DLD demonstrated poor verbal working memory and speeded sentence-level reading. ...
Source: Journal of Learning Disabilities - Category: Disability Authors: Tags: J Learn Disabil Source Type: research
Cortisol is the main end product of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA axis), and melatonin (MT) has a regulating effect on HPA axis, and both are closely related to individual behavior and cognitive function. We aimed to evaluate cortisol and MT roles on children dyslexia in this study. A total of 72 dyslexic children and 72 controls were recruited in this study. Saliva samples were collected in the morning, afternoon, and night, respectively. The levels of saliva cortisol and MT were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Differences of cortisol and MT levels between dyslexic and normal children we...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research
Publication date: May 2020Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Volume 193Author(s): Wibke Maria Hachmann, Nathan Cashdollar, Francesca Postiglione, Remo JobAbstractRecent evidence suggests that reading development when learning alphabetic languages is related to the underlying cognitive ability to maintain the serial order of information in short-term memory (STM). However, it remains unclear at which time point in reading development serial order STM is most important. Here, we established a crucial link between the reading development of primary school children and their serial order STM performance for both...
Source: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology - Category: Child Development Source Type: research
Conditions:   Developmental Disability;   Developmental Dyslexia;   Intellectual Disability Intervention:   Other: Body Posture Assessment Sponsor:   Ahmet Emir Completed
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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