Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells: A Race to Revolutionize Cancer Therapy

For years, cancer treatment was dominated by chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplantation. New insights into genetic characteristics of leukemic cells have initiated the development of the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. This type of adoptive cell immunotherapy has been a breakthrough in the treatment of aggressive B-cell lymphoma and B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In August 2018, the European Commission has approved the first CAR T-cell products – tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah®, Novartis) and axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta®, Gilead) – for hematological neoplasms in Europe. As CAR T cells are a living drug, its benefits can last for many years. The administration of CAR T cells is a complex and costly endeavor involving cell manufacture , shipping of apheresis products, and management of novel and severe adverse reactions. The most common toxicities observed after CAR T-cell therapy are cytokine release syndrome and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome. Current research focuses on improved safety and efficacy in h ematological malignancies as well as the translation of CAR T-cell therapy to solid tumors. This review covers the development and current status of CAR T-cell therapy in a clinical setting with focus on challenges and future opportunities.Transfus Med Hemother
Source: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy - Category: Hematology Source Type: research

Related Links:

ConclusionsIn conclusion, our study shows that BIV subtype is heterogeneous group of leukemia including not only the BL, but also BCP-ALL. In ambiguous cases, only a combination of multiple immunophenotypic, cytomorphologic, and genetic diagnostic technologies can allow the precise discrimination of BL and BCP-ALL and selection of the appropriate treatment scheme.
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Best Practice &Research Clinical HaematologyAuthor(s): Mathew L. Cooper, John F. DiPersioAbstractAt present, the only curative therapy for patients with T-cell malignancies is allogeneic stem cell transplant, which has associated risks and toxicities. Novel agents have been tried in relapsed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), but only one, with 20%-30% complete remission rates, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. T-ALL is a heterogeneous disease, but it has universal overexpression of CD7 as well as several other T-cell markers, s...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Haematology - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
Bergh J, Gisselbrecht C, Tzogani K, Papadouli I, Pignatti F Abstract Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T-cell therapy is becoming one of the most promising approaches in the treatment of cancer. On June 28, 2018, the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) and the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a marketing authorization for the medicinal product Kymriah for pediatric and young adult patients up to 25 years of age with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that is refractory, in relap...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncologist Source Type: research
Authors: Mohanty R, Chowdhury CR, Arega S, Sen P, Ganguly P, Ganguly N Abstract Cancer has recently been identified as the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Several conventional treatments and cytotoxic immunotherapies have been developed and made available to the market. Considering the complex behavior of tumors and the involvement of numerous genetic and cellular factors involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis, there is a need to develop a promising immunotherapy that targets tumors at both the cellular and genetic levels. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has emerged as a novel therapeuti...
Source: Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research
ConclusionsBBz CAR-T showed similar antitumor activity, but a more favorable safety profile, compared with 28z CAR-T. This study proved the competence of BBz CAR-T in B-NHL therapy, at least under our manufacturing process.Legal entity responsible for the studyPeking University Cancer Hospital&Institute.FundingImmunochina Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd.DisclosureAll authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study aimed to analyze the role of postoperative treatment for BC in the development of subsequent HM. Using the French National Health Data System, we examined the HM risks in patients diagnosed with an incident primary breast cancer between 2007 and 2015, who underwent surgery as first-line treatment for BC. Main outcomes were acute myeloid leukemia (AML), Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), multiple myeloma (MM), Hodgkin’s lymphoma or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL/NHL), and acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphocytic lymphoma (ALL/LL). Analyses were censored at HM o...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
A promising and expensive type of immunotherapy, called CAR T-cell therapy, is now covered by Medicare. This news may affect mesothelioma patients in the future. Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell, or CAR T-cell, therapy involves the laboratory reprogramming of a patient’s T cells, which are a type of white blood cell responsible for protecting the body against infection and disease. The T cells are genetically modified to better recognize and attack cancer. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the immunotherapy procedure for non-Hodgkin lymphoma and B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: news
Abstract Cancer cells undergo massive alterations in their DNA methylation patterns which result in aberrant gene expression and malignant phenotypes. Abnormal DNA methylation is a prognostic marker in several malignancies, but its potential prognostic significance in adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is poorly defined. Here, we performed methylated DNA immunoprecipitation to obtain a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of promoter methylation in adult T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (n=24) compared to normal thymi (n=3). We identified a CpG hypermethylator phenotype that distinguishes two T-cell acute ...
Source: Haematologica - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Haematologica Source Type: research
In conclusion, these recent studies strongly support CD123 as an important therapeutic target for the treatment of BPDCN, while a possible in the treatment of AML and other hematological malignancies will have to be evaluated by in the ongoing clinical studies.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
t N Abstract Bispecific T cell engagers are antibody constructs directed to a tumor-specific target on the one hand and to CD3-positive T cells on the other hand. Blinatumomab is a compound with specificity for the pan-B cell marker CD19. Clinical activity was tested in relapsed and refractory (R/R) non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), R/R acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and ALL patients with minimal residual disease. Trials have already been started in de novo ALL. The most clinically relevant toxicities are neurologic events and cytokine release syndrome as with other T cell-activating therapies. The mechanisms of ...
Source: Cell Research - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Recent Results Cancer Res Source Type: research
More News: Acute Leukemia | Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia | Brain | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Cancer Therapy | Chemotherapy | Genetics | Hematology | Immunotherapy | Leukemia | Lymphoma | Neurology | Radiation Therapy | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cells | Toxicology | Transplants