Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 139: The One Health Approach is Necessary for the Control of Rift Valley Fever Infections in Egypt: A Comprehensive Review
Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 139: The One Health Approach is Necessary for the Control of Rift Valley Fever Infections in Egypt: A Comprehensive Review Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11020139 Authors: Fawzy Helmy Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging transboundary, mosquito-borne, zoonotic viral disease caused high morbidity and mortality in both human and ruminant populations. It is considered an important threat to both agriculture and public health in African and the Middle Eastern countries including Egypt. Five major RVF epidemics have been reported in Egypt (1977, 1993, 1994, 1997, and 2003). The virus is transmitted in Egypt by different mosquito's genera such as Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, and Mansonia, leading to abortions in susceptible animal hosts especially sheep, goat, cattle, and buffaloes. Recurrent RVF outbreaks in Egypt have been attributed in part to the lack of routine surveillance for the virus. These periodic epizootics have resulted in severe economic losses. We posit that there is a critical need for new approaches to RVF control that will prevent or at least reduce future morbidity and economic stress. One Health is an integrated approach for the understanding and management of animal, human, and environmental determinants of complex problems such as RVF. Employing the One Health approach, one might engage local communities in surveillance and control of RVF efforts, rather than continuing their current status as passive victims of the periodic RVF i...
ConclusionsTB can have varied presentation and therefore it is essential to keep tubercular infection in differential diagnosis while working up for any infective pathology. Conservative treatment produces good results in vast majority of cases. Surgery is reserved for select indications.
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Conclusions/SignificanceThe high seroprevalence in all age groups and evidence of year-round viral circulation provide evidence for a hyperendemic situation in the study area. This is the first study to directly estimate infection rate of RVFV in livestock in an endemic area in the absence of reported outbreaks and provides the basis for further investigation of factors affecting viral circulation and mechanisms for virus survival during interepidemic periods.