Heart disease in Friedreich's ataxia.

Heart disease in Friedreich's ataxia. World J Cardiol. 2019 Jan 26;11(1):1-12 Authors: Hanson E, Sheldon M, Pacheco B, Alkubeysi M, Raizada V Abstract Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), which occurs in 1/50000 live births, is the most prevalent inherited neuromuscular disorder. Nearly all FRDA patients develop cardiomyopathy at some point in their lives. The clinical manifestations of FRDA include ataxia of the limbs and trunk, dysarthria, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac diseases. However, the broad clinical spectrum makes FRDA difficult to identify. The diagnosis of FRDA is based on the presence of suspicious clinical factors, the use of the Harding criteria and, more recently, the use of genetic testing for identifying the expansion of a triplet nucleotide sequence. FRDA is linked to a defect in the mitochondrial protein frataxin; an epigenetic alteration interferes with the folding of this protein, causing a relative deficiency of frataxin in affected patients. Frataxins are small essential proteins whose deficiency causes a range of metabolic disturbances, including oxidative stress, iron-sulfur cluster deficits, and defects in heme synthesis, sulfur amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, stress responses, and mitochondrial function. The cardiac involvement seen in FRDA is a consequence of mitochondrial proliferation as well as the loss of contractile proteins and the subsequent development of myocardial fibrosis. The walls of the left ventricle become th...
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

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