PERSPECTIVES Nonhuman Primate Models of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Infections

Although phylogenetically unrelated, human hepatitis viruses share an exclusive or near exclusive tropism for replication in differentiated hepatocytes. This narrow tissue tropism may contribute to the restriction of the host ranges of these viruses to relatively few host species, mostly nonhuman primates. Nonhuman primate models thus figure prominently in our current understanding of the replication and pathogenesis of these viruses, including the enterically transmitted hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV), and have also played major roles in vaccine development. This review draws comparisons of HAV and HEV infection from studies conducted in nonhuman primates, and describes how such studies have contributed to our current understanding of the biology of these viruses.
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Enteric Hepatitis Viruses PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

Related Links:

We present a 13-year old previously healthy Omani with fatal hepatitis A virus infection. This case highlights the critical role of hepatitis A vaccination and argues for consideration of its inclusion in national vaccination programs in order to avert similar devastating consequences of yet another vaccine preventable disease.
Source: IDCases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
.
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Changes include a recommendation for a hepatitis A catch-up vaccination for anyone who wasn't vaccinated as a child.News Alerts
Source: Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infectious Diseases News Alert Source Type: news
Authors: Omara T, Nassazi W, Omute T, Awath A, Laker F, Kalukusu R, Musau B, Nakabuye BV, Kagoya S, Otim G, Adupa E Abstract Uganda is an agrarian country where farming employs more than 60% of the population. Aflatoxins remain a scourge in the country, unprecedentedly reducing the nutritional and economic value of agricultural foods. This review was sought to synthetize the country's major findings in relation to the mycotoxins' etiology, epidemiology, detection, quantification, exposure assessment, control, and reduction in different matrices. Electronic results indicate that aflatoxins in Uganda are produced by ...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research
This study confirms that hepatitis E is the leading cause of acute jaundice, leads to hospitalizations in all regions in Bangladesh, occurs throughout the year, and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortal ity. Effective control measures should be taken to reduce the risk of HEV infections including improvements in water quality, sanitation and hygiene practices and the introduction of HEV vaccine to high-risk groups.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
This study’s aim is to assess migrant children’s immunity according to origin and age, and the cost-effectiveness of different immunization strategies. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 329 children’s serostatus (1–16 years of age) between 2012 and 2015, using enzyme-linked fluorescent assay method. Serology and vaccine costs were based on local prices. Groups were compared with χ2 test and the age-seropositivity relationship was studied with linear regression. Results: The predominant regions were the Eastern Mediterranean and European Regions with mostly negative serologies (71% and 8...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research
The burden of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highest in East Asia and Africa, although its incidence and mortality are rapidly rising in the United States and Europe. With the implementation of hepatitis B vaccination and hepatitis C treatment programmes worldwide, the epidemiology of HCC is shifting away from a disease predominated by viral hepatitis – an increasing proportion of cases are now attributable to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Surveillance using ultrasound, with or without alpha-fetoprotein, every 6 months has been associated with improved early detection and improved overall survival; however, lim...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
PMID: 31948821 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
The rise of vaccine-preventable illnesses, such as measles and hepatitis, in the United States and around the globe has been alarming in recent years. For women — especially those hoping to become pregnant, as well as women who are pregnant or have recently had a baby — vaccines can be a worrisome topic. There are many misconceptions about vaccine safety in and around pregnancy that can lead to confusion and unnecessary fear of a lifesaving medical tool. As a practicing ob/gyn, I often discuss vaccines with my patients and help them sort out fears versus facts. Which vaccines should you consider before concepti...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health Parenting Pregnancy Vaccines Women's Health Source Type: blogs
More News: Biology | Hepatitis | Hepatitis A | Hepatitis Vaccine | Research | Study | Vaccines