PERSPECTIVES Immunization against Hepatitis A

Worldwide, there are multiple formaldehyde-inactivated and at least two live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines now in clinical use. The impressive immunogenicity of inactivated vaccines is reflected in rapid seroconversion rates, enabling both preexposure and postexposure prophylaxis. Universal childhood vaccination programs targeting young children have led to significant drops in the incidence of hepatitis A both in toddlers and in susceptible nonimmune adults in regions with intermediate endemicity for hepatitis A. Although the safety of inactivated vaccines is well established, further studies are needed concerning the implications of fecal virus shedding by recipients of attenuated vaccines, as well as the long-term persistence of immune memory in children receiving novel immunization schedules consisting of single doses of inactivated vaccines.
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Enteric Hepatitis Viruses PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

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This study confirms that hepatitis E is the leading cause of acute jaundice, leads to hospitalizations in all regions in Bangladesh, occurs throughout the year, and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortal ity. Effective control measures should be taken to reduce the risk of HEV infections including improvements in water quality, sanitation and hygiene practices and the introduction of HEV vaccine to high-risk groups.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
This study’s aim is to assess migrant children’s immunity according to origin and age, and the cost-effectiveness of different immunization strategies. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 329 children’s serostatus (1–16 years of age) between 2012 and 2015, using enzyme-linked fluorescent assay method. Serology and vaccine costs were based on local prices. Groups were compared with χ2 test and the age-seropositivity relationship was studied with linear regression. Results: The predominant regions were the Eastern Mediterranean and European Regions with mostly negative serologies (71% and 8...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term persistence of anti-HAV antibodies was observed up to 10 years with 1-dose and 2-dose vaccine schedules, supporting booster flexibility. Statistical modeling predicted good persistence of seroprotection for each schedule up to 30 years. Natural boosting had a limited impact on seroprotection rate predictions, enabling extrapolation of these results to non-endemic settings for traveler vaccination. PMID: 31928855 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
This article provides information on these and other travel vaccinations against hepatitis A, typhoid fever, rabies, Japanese encephalitis and cholera.Yellow fever endemic areas are located in Africa and in South America; there is no yellow fever in Asia. The meningococcal vaccine (A, C, W, Y) is required for pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. Additionally, it is recommended for travellers visiting the African "meningitis belt" during the dry season. A polio booster is required for countries with endemic wild-type polio virus (WPV) or circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV).Hepatitis A is a common vaccine-prev...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
AbstractHepatitis A, an acute inflammatory liver disease caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection from close contact with infected people, is highly endemic in the Indian subcontinent. Due to poor sanitary conditions, most of the population is exposed to the virus in childhood. At this age, the disease is asymptomatic and provides life-long protection against the disease. Due to rapid socioeconomic development in some areas, however, pockets of the population are reaching adolescence/adulthood without prior exposure to the virus and are thus susceptible to infection. At these ages, infection carries a higher risk of sym...
Source: Infectious Diseases and Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The association between birthplace and HAV vaccination status differs by race among travelers to HRCs, with US-born non-Hispanic Black and non-US-born Asian and Hispanic adults having lower odds of vaccination. Health care resources should be focused on these target populations to improve travel vaccination compliance. PMID: 31196682 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
This study estimated the frequency of viral hepatitis by occupational and non-occupational infections and analyzed the factors associated with case notifications in Brazil from 2007 to 2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was an exploratory epidemiological study using the Notifiable Diseases Information System database. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: The frequency of viral hepatitis by occupational infections was 0.7%, of which 1.3% were due to hepatitis A virus (HAV), 45.1% hepatitis B virus (HBV), and 45.3% hepatitis C virus (HCV). There was a significant association of the disease wit...
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease. HEV has remained endemic in many developing countries, and in well-developed, ec...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Enteric Hepatitis Viruses PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest an urgent need for detailed evidence-based considerations to introduce hepatitis A vaccine into the EPI-SA. PMID: 31131797 [PubMed - in process]
Source: South African Medical Journal - Category: African Health Tags: S Afr Med J Source Type: research
Authors: Trujillo-Ochoa JL, Viera-Segura O, Fierro NA Abstract Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. The virus is mainly transmitted via the fecaloral route and, the incidence of infection is closely related to low socioeconomic conditions and poor sanitation. Mexico, previously categorized an area of high endemicity for HAV infection, is undergoing epidemiological transition. However, a limited number of HAV-related scientific reports regarding to virus burden is available. According to the local government health agency (Secretarla de Salud, SSA in Spanish), from 199...
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
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