Genetics of gallstone disease revisited: updated inventory of human lithogenic genes

Purpose of review Gallstone disease is one of the most frequent diseases in gastroenterology and treatment by endoscopy and surgery causes high costs in our health-care systems. Family and twin studies have demonstrated that gallstones are, in part, genetically determined. Here we review all recent genome-wide and phenome-wide studies of gallstones in humans and provide an updated ‘inventory of human lithogenic genes.’ Recent findings The largest population attributable risk is conferred by the common variant (p.D19H) of the hepatic and intestinal cholesterol transporter ABCG5/G8. A second ABC transporter, the hepatic phosphatidylcholine translocase ABCB4, increases the risk for gallstone disease, gallbladder cancer and chronic liver diseases in general, whereas the common PNPLA3 risk variant p.I148M decreases gallstone risk. Summary Better understanding of the pathomechanisms of gallstone disease might help to overcome the current invasive treatment of this exceptionally prevalent and economically significant digestive disease by personalized prevention in at-risk patients.
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: BILIARY TRACT: Edited by Chantal Housset Source Type: research

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