Altered perception might be a symptom of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis.

Altered perception might be a symptom of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Neurocase. 2019 Jan 25;:1-4 Authors: Funayama M, Mizushima J, Takata T, Koreki A, Mimura M Abstract Most patients with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis initially present with psychiatric symptoms. Although a delayed diagnosis may lead to a poor outcome, psychiatric symptoms that could differentiate anti-NMDAR encephalitis from other psychoses have not been fully investigated. We evaluated two patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis who were observed by psychiatrists from onset throughout the course of disease. Both patients exhibited disorientation, memory deficits, perceptual disturbances, hallucinations, and mood liability. Among those, altered perceptions were most prominent - in particular, altered time perceptions without disorganization syndrome. The information obtained for these patients may help clinicians differentiate anti-NMDAR encephalitis from other psychoses, e.g., schizophrenia. PMID: 30681026 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neurocase - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurocase Source Type: research

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The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction model of schizophrenia suggests that dysfunction of these receptors leads to an excess release of glutamate and could explain the brain structural abnormalities characterizing these patients. In NMDAR encephalitis (NMDARE), which holds clinical similarities with schizophrenia, autoantibodies target NMDARs, leading to increased levels of glutamatergic metabolites in brain tissue. No study so far has examined these disorders comparatively.
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
We report that overnight incubation with NMDAR-Ab from patients, but not from healthy carriers, decreased the surface dynamics of D1R compared with NMDAR-Ab seronegative IgGs. This decrease was abolished, and even reversed, in D1R mutant that cannot physically interact with NMDAR. Overall, our data indicate that NMDAR-Ab from patients with psychotic symptoms alter the trafficking of D1R, likely through the surface crosstalk between NMDAR and D1R.
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Abstract Microglia, as brain-resident macrophages, are the first line of defense against brain invading pathogens. Further, their dysfunction has been recognized to be closely associated with mounting CNS diseases. Of note, chronic HSV-1 infection leads to the persistent activation of microglia, which elicit a comprehensive response by generating certain factors with neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects. CNS infection with HSV-1 results in herpes simplex encephalitis and herpes simplex keratitis. Microglial immune response plays a crucial role in the development of these diseases. Moreover, HSV-1 infection is st...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research
Catatonia is a rare condition that can occur in developmental disorders, but it is more frequently seen in schizophrenia. Recently, a high prevalence of cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities including the detection of antineuronal autoantibodies has been observed in psychotic patients. Among these autoimmune encephalopathies associated with a psychiatric condition, a great deal of attention has been paid to anti–N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) encephalitis, which may present, among other things, symptoms such as catatonia, which therefore imposes a differential diagnosis with respect to the early psychosis. The aim...
Source: Clinical Neuropharmacology - Category: Neurology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research
In this study, we enrolled 110 first-episode patients with schizophrenia (FEP) and 50 healthy controls (HC). Cognitive function and psychopathology were assessed using the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), respectively. NMDAR antibody levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed that FEP with schizophrenia exhibited cognitive deficits in all domains of the MCCB and had elevated levels of serum anti-NMDAR antibody compared with the healthy controls (9....
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In this study, we enrolled 110 first-episode patients with schizophrenia (FEP) and 50 healthy controls (HC). Cognitive function and psychopathology were assessed using the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS)Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), respectively. NMDAR antibody levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed that FEP with schizophrenia exhibited cognitive deficits in all domains of the MCCB and had elevated levels of serum anti-NMDAR antibody compared with the healthy controls (9.2 &plu...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Behav Immun Source Type: research
Schizophrenia is a phenotypically heterogeneous and poorly understood disorder. While its etiology is likely multifactorial, immune system dysfunction has increasingly been implicated in its development. As hallucinations and delusions occur frequently and prominently in autoimmune encephalitis (AE), numerous studies have sought to determine whether a small subset of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia possess anti-neuronal antibodies implicated in AE. Exploring this possibility is of clinical relevance, as identifying individuals with AE who have been misdiagnosed as having a primary psychotic disorder may allow for ...
Source: Neuropsychobiology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
This study focuses on presenting features of anti-NMDAr encephalitis (anti-NMDArE) in adults likely to be seen by a psychiatrist, to identify patterns of signs and symptoms that may promote early diagnosis.
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions Toxoplasma gondii infection induces a strong innate and adaptive immune response. While the innate immunity is important for controlling the early stages of the infection (Yarovinsky, 2014), the adaptive immunity is critical for restricting the parasite replication during the later stages (Gazzinelli et al., 1992). Amongst the adaptive immune subsets, CD8 T cells are the primary effector cells while CD4 T cells play an essential helper role to maintain long-term immunity (Casciotti et al., 2002). Notwithstanding, a robust CD8 T cell immunity induced during acute phase of infection, does not result in the total...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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