Implicit versus explicit mechanisms of vocabulary learning and consolidation

Publication date: June 2019Source: Journal of Memory and Language, Volume 106Author(s): Justyna M. Sobczak, M. Gareth GaskellAbstractPrevious research has suggested that integration of novel words into lexical competition benefits from a consolidation delay containing a period of sleep (Dumay &Gaskell, 2007). However, a recent study argued that learning novel words via a relatively implicit Hebb repetition task leads to later lexical integration independently of sleep (Szmalec, Page, &Duyck, 2012). It is not clear whether this different time course of lexical integration is a consequence of the learning method chosen, as opposed to other between study differences. Four experiments directly compared the learning of novel words using explicit and implicit methods, namely phoneme monitoring on isolated tokens vs. Hebb repetition of syllable sequences. The impact of the learning was tested at a range of later time-points using two tests of explicit knowledge (recognition and recall) and a test of lexical integration (pause detection on related existing words). Between experiments, we also manipulated exposure frequency, the impact of syllable grouping cues in Hebb repetition and the level of mismatch between novel and real words. The results suggested that learning novel words via Hebb sequence repetition does not confer a benefit on lexical integration prior to or after sleep. We observed an engagement in lexical competition only in the case where a good level of explici...
Source: Journal of Memory and Language - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: IJC Heart &VasculatureAuthor(s): Dominik Linz, Mathias Baumert, Lien Desteghe, Kadhim Kadhim, Kevin Vernooy, Jonathan M. Kalman, Dobromir Dobrev, Michael Arzt, Manu Sastry, Harry J.G.M. Crijns, Ulrich Schotten, Martin R. Cowie, R. Doug McEvoy, Hein Heidbuchel, Jeroen Hendriks, Prashanthan Sanders, Dennis H. LauAbstractIn patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), the prevalence of moderate-to-severe sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) ranges between 21% and 72% and observational studies have demonstrated that SDB reduces the efficacy of rhythm control strategies, whil...
Source: IJC Heart and Vasculature - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Publication date: November 2019Source: Infant Behavior and Development, Volume 57Author(s): Stephanie H. Parade, Kristyn Wong, Renee Belair, Susan Dickstein, Ronald SeiferAbstractObserved infant temperamental difficulty and infant sleep efficiency and sleep variability were examined as predictors of maternal depressive symptoms, maternal sensitivity, and family functioning. Eight observations at 8-months postpartum were used to assess infant temperament, and actigraphy was used to measure infant sleep for 1-week at the time of the 8-month assessment. Structured clinical interviews were used to assess maternal depressive sy...
Source: Infant Behavior and Development - Category: Child Development Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our study characterizes sleep patterns and identifies potential risk factors linked to sleep disturbances in a sample of Portuguese anaesthesiologists. Government and institutional policies can endorse sleep hygiene practices and habits, promoting healthier working environments. PMID: 31625876 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Medica Portuguesa - Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Med Port Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Parent-reported sleep problems underestimate the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire results. This is not necessarily indicative of more disturbed sleep and might reflect differences in sleep behavior, childcare practice, and cognitions and attitudes towards the concept of 'normal' sleep. PMID: 31625874 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Medica Portuguesa - Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Med Port Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic DisordersAuthor(s): Côme Roux, Béatrice Villemur, Brigitte Giovannoni, Lucie Koeyemelk, Monique Mendelson, Meriem Benmerad, Marie Joyeux-Faure, Renaud Tamisier, Jean-Louis PepinAbstractObjectiveObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is one of the most frequent chronic diseases in the general population. The nocturnal rostral fluid shift is accepted as a key mechanism in OSA pathogenesis in medical conditions associated with fluid overload. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of ...
Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Conclusion: Benchmark cutoffs targeting perioperative outcomes in BS offer a new tool in surgical quality-metrics and may be implemented in quality-improvement cycle. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03440138
Source: Annals of Surgery - Category: Surgery Tags: ESA PAPERS Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Leighton R Barnden, Zack Y Shan, Donald R Staines, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik, Kevin Finegan, Timothy Ireland, Sandeep BhutaAbstractIn myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), abnormal MRI correlations with symptom severity and autonomic measures have suggested impaired nerve signal conduction within the brainstem. Here we analyse fMRI correlations to directly test connectivity within and from the brainstem. Resting and task functional MRI (fMRI) were acquired for 45 ME/CFS (Fukuda criteria) and 27 healthy controls...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Children with ADHD may suffer from sleep breathing problems and daytime sleepiness, as reported by their parents, even when their total sleep time and sleep efficiency are not affected. It seems that sleep in this population does not largely vary as a function of the ADHD presentation. Sleep in children with ADHD evolves with age.ResumenAntecedentes/ObjetivoExaminar los patrones de sueño subjetivos y objetivos de niños con diferentes presentaciones del Trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH). Método: Se evaluaron 92 niños (29 TDAH-inatento [TDAH-I)], ...
Source: International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
Wouldn ’t it be nice if the millions of folks with sleep disorders could be fixed by a simple intervention?
Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Source Type: news
ConclusionThere is a debate in the literature regarding the impact of OSA on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders and in different age groups. However, the variation in results might be related to different study designs and significant epidemiological prevalence of OSA in males and females.
Source: Respiratory Investigation - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
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