The Role of MIF on Eosinophil Biology and Eosinophilic Inflammation

AbstractMacrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine that participates in innate and adaptive immune responses. MIF contributes to the resistance against infection agents, but also to the cellular and tissue damage in infectious, autoimmune, and allergic diseases. In the past years, several studies demonstrated a critical role for MIF in the pathogenesis of type-2-mediated inflammation, including allergy and helminth infection. Atopic patients have increased MIF amounts in affected tissues, mainly produced by immune cells such as macrophages, Th2 cells, and eosinophils. Increased MIF mRNA and protein are found in activated Th2 cells, while eosinophils stock pre-formed MIF protein and secrete high amounts of MIF upon stimulation. In mouse models of allergic asthma, the lack of MIF causes an almost complete abrogation of the cardinal signs of the disease including mucus secretion, eosinophilic inflammation, and airway hyper-responsiveness. Additionally, blocking the expression of MIF in animal models leads to significant reduction of pathological signs of eosinophilic inflammation such as rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, eosinophilic esophagitis and helminth infection. A number of studies indicate that MIF is important in the effector phase of type-2 immune responses, while its contribution to Th2 differentiation and IgE production is not consensual. MIF has been found to intervene in different aspects of eosinophil physiology including differentiation, ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Alessandro Poggi1*, Roberto Benelli2, Roberta Venè1, Delfina Costa1, Nicoletta Ferrari1, Francesca Tosetti1 and Maria Raffaella Zocchi3 1Molecular Oncology and Angiogenesis Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 2Immunology Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy 3Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy It is well established that natural killer (NK) cells are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Indeed, they can recognize molecules induced at the cell surface by stress signals ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions In conclusion, articles in this Research Topic made a very significant contribution to our understanding of the role played by environmental factors, dysbiotic conditions, and infections in triggering diseases. Since this is a rapidly expanding area of research, many other factors contributing to the onset of these diseases are not covered here. We are confident, however, that further studies will expand the list as well as bring a better understanding of mechanisms involved in the onset of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Author Contributions All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and i...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study was supported by grants from GSK and the UK Medical Research Council (U105178805). Conflict of Interest Statement AM has grant funding from GSK and AstraZeneca/MedImmune. MB, DJ, AP, DT, and AvO are employees of GSK. The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments We are grateful to the Ares staff, genotyping facility, and flow cytometry core for their technical assistance. We thank Jen Walker for advice on the manuscript. Supplementary Material The Supplem...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study was provided by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Manitoba Health Research Council. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References 1. Sprent J, Kishimoto H. The thymus and central tolerance. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. (2001) 356:609–16. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2001.0846 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar 2. Sakaguchi S, Wing K, Miyara M. Regulatory T cells - a brief history and perspective. ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
It is well established that autoimmune diseases, atopic conditions and asthma affect adult females more frequently than adult males. This discrepancy typically develops after childhood and affects females differently depending on their life cycle. As children, males have higher total and allergen specific IgE levels than females and are more likely to suffer from atopic disease and asthma than girls. However, as adults, this prevalence reverses and females are more likely to develop atopic conditions such as food allergies, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, angioedema and asthma.
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Atopic dermatitis (AD) has been associated with multiple comorbid extracutaneous and systemic disorders. The relation between AD severity and disease comorbidities is complex and not fully understood.
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects 7% of US adults (Silverberg et al., 2018; Hua&Silverberg, 2018), and causes significant quality of life impairment and disease burden (Silverberg et al., 2018), and has been found to be associated with a wide range of allergic and non-allergic comorbid disorders (Silverberg&Silverberg, 2014; Silverberg&Hanifin, 2013; Silverberg&Simpson, 2013; Narla&Silverberg, 2017). However, the relationship between AD and comorbid health disorders is complex.
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: The frequency of allergenic sensitization in the group of patients with PID and symptoms suggestive of asthma, rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis is lower than that found in the general population, probably due the impairment of IgE formation secondary to their immunologic alterations.Int Arch Allergy Immunol
Source: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
The most common disorders associated with an eosinophilia are infection (especially parasitic), allergy, drugs and hypersensitivity disorders (such as asthma, acute urticaria, and atopic dermatitis); these account for>95% of cases. Less common reactive causes are GVHD, Churg-Strauss syndrome, connective tissue and autoimmune disease. Literature talks less about it, although surgical mesh has been associated with more robust GVD and immune complications. There is a paucity of literature with respect to elderly with such conditions, even though the elders are more likely to have undergone such surgeries and therefore, at ...
Source: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association - Category: Health Management Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
The complex commensal microbiota found on body surfaces controls immune responses and the development of allergic and inflammatory diseases. New genetic technologies permit investigators to determine the composition of the complex microbial populations found on these surfaces. Changes in the microbiota (dysbiosis) as a result of antibiotic use, diet, or other factors thus influence the development of many diseases in the dog and cat. The most important of these include chronic gastrointestinal disease; respiratory allergies, such as asthma; skin diseases, especially atopic dermatitis; and some autoimmune diseases.
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Source Type: research
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